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Rules And Orders Of

The Lahore High Court Lahore

 

Volume — I

Instructions to Civil Courts

 

 

  Contents  
1 Practice in the Trial of civil suits  
  Part A – General (Court hours, holidays, cause lists)  
  Part B – Reception of plaints and applications  
  Part C – Examination of the plaint  
  Part D – Service of Processes  
  Part E – Written statements  
  Part F – Settlement of issues  
  Part G – Documentary Evidence  
  Part H – Hearing of suits, adjournments,                         examination of witnesses etc.  
  Part J – Dismissals in default and  ex – parte                                       proceedings  
  Part K – Speedy Disposal of Cases  
  Part L – Incidental Proceedings  
        (a)   Attachment before Judgment and

Temporary Injunction

 
        (b)    Death, Marriage or Insolvency of Parties  
        (c)    Compromises  
        (d)   Amendment and Review  
        (e)    Inherent Powers under section 151, C.P.C.  
  Part M – Special features of certain classes of cases  
       (a)    Cases under Punjab Customary

Law…[Omitted]

 
       (b)     Money Suits  
       (c)     Pre-emption Suit  
       (d)     Suits by and against minors and persons

of unsound mind

 
       (e)     Suits by Paupers  
       (f)     Suits for Redemption and Foreclosure of

Mortgages

 
       (g)     Suits for Declaratory Decrees  
        (i)     Procedure in “Hadd – Shikni Cases”  
  Part N – Miscellaneous Notifications etc.  
  Part O – Punjab Acts  
2 JURISDICTION–CIVIL COURTS  
  Part A – Jurisdiction of Civil Courts (General)  
  Part B – Jurisdiction of Civil and Revenue Courts  
3 VALUATION OF SUITS  
  Part A – Valuation of Suit  
  Part B – Value of the Subject-mater of Suits for the purposes of appeal  
  Part C – Manner of determining the value of suits for purposes specified in section 9 of the suits valuation Act 1887  
  Part D – Manner of determining the value of land for purposes of jurisdiction in certain classes of suits.  
4 ARBITRATION PROCEEDINGS  
  Part A – Arbitration Proceedings under the Code of Civil Procedure  
  Part B – Rules under the Arbitration Act,    1940  
  Part C – The Arbitration (Protocol and Convention) Act,1937  
5 WITNESSES-CIVIL COURTS  
  Part A – Attendance of witnesses ( General )  
  Part B – Attendance of Patwaris in Civil Courts  
  Part C – Remuneration  
  Part D – Copying and search fees payable to Banks for production of documents in Law Courts  
6 SUITS BY OR AGAINST PERSONS IN MILITARY SERVICE  
  Part A – Amenability to the Civil Courts of persons subject to Military law  
  Part B – The Soldiers Litigation Act, 1925  
  Part C – Proceedings with respect to Succession Certificates

 

 
7 SUITS AGAINST OR INVOLVING

PRINCES, CHIEFS, etc…

[Omitted]

 
8 SUITS BY OR AGAINST THE GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC OFFICERS

 

 
9 UTILIZATION OF THE SERVICES OF THE SPECIAL KANUNGO

 

 
10 COMMISSIONS AND LETTERS OF REQUEST  
  Part A – General instructions  
  Part B – Appointment of Commissioners  
  Part C – Commissions for examination of witnesses In Hyderabad….[Omitted  
  Part D – Reciprocal arrangements with Courts of Azad Jammun & Kashmir  
  Part E – Reciprocal arrangements with Punjab States….[Omitted]  
  Part F- Commissions and Letters of Request for the examination of witnesses in Foreign countries  
  Part G – Commissions and Letters of Request….[Omitted]  
  Part H – Letters of Requests and Commissions issued by Foreign Courts  
11 JUDGMENTS AND DECREES  
  Part A – Preparation and delivery of judgments  
  Part B – Preparation of decrees  
  Part C- Decrees in Pre-emption Cases  
  Part D – Decrees contravening the provisions of the Punjab Land Alienation Act  
  Part E – Award of costs in civil suits  
  Part F – Award of interest in civil suits  
12 EXECUTION OF DECREES  
  Part A – General  
  Part B – Courts competent to execute decrees  
  Part C – Powers of executing courts  
  Part D – Payment into court and certification of payments out of court  
  Part E – Procedure on application for execution  
  Part F – Execution by arrest and imprisonment  
  Part G – Execution of decrees for the delivery of immovable property  
  Part H – Attachment  
  Part J – Objections to attachment  
  Part K – Custody and disposal of movable property pending sale  
  Part L – Sale of property and delivery to the purchaser  
  Part M – Execution of decrees by the attachment and sale or temporary alienation of revenue paying or revenue free-land  
  Part N – Execution of decrees against agriculturists  
  Part O – Execution of decrees against persons in military service….[Omitted]  
  Part P – Receipts for property realised or recovered in execution of decrees  
  Part Q – Resistance to execution  
  Part R – Costs in execution proceedings  
  Part S – Reciprocal execution of decrees by Courts in Pakistan and Courts in Foreign countries  
13 TRANSFER AND WITHDRAWL OF SUITS AND APPEALS  
14 APPEALS AND REVISIONS-CIVIL  
  Part A – The appellate system of the Punjab  
  Part B – General procedure of appellate Courts  
  Part C – Security in revision cases  
  Part D – Procedure in the case of appeals and applications presented after period of limitation  
  Part E – Transmission of appellate court’s orders to lower courts  
15 REFERENCE TO THE HIGH COURT  
16 LEGAL PRACTITIONERS  
  Part A – The filing of powers of attorney by pleaders in    subordinate courts  
  Part B – Fees of counsel  
  Part C – Fees of declaratory suits, etc  
17 PETITION WRITERS

[Omitted]

 
18 MINISTERIAL ESTABLISHMENT – Civil Courts  
  Part A – Control  
  Part B – Character Rolls….[Omitted]  
  Part C – Security  
19 SUPPLY OF LIVERIES

[Omitted]

 
20 CIVIL DISTRICTS  
21 JUDICIAL POWERS-CIVIL  
  Part A – Conferment of powers ( Judicial )  
  Part B – Powers ( General )  
22 Rules Made By The High Court Under Section 122 Of The Code Of Civil Procedure Annulling Altering Or Adding To The Rules In The First Schedule Of The Code  

 

 

 

Rules And Orders Of

The Lahore High Court Lahore

 

Volume — I

Instructions to Civil Courts

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER —  1

PRACTICE IN THE TRIAL OF CIVIL SUITS

 

PART A  —  GENERAL

 

  1. Court Hours.– All Civil Courts in the Punjab shall sit on every day that is not a holiday for Civil Courts. The Court hours shall be fixed by the High Court through a notification and shall be subject to such alteration or change as may be made by general or special order keeping in view the demands of any particular area, event or occasion.

 

  1. Taking up cases after Court hours.– No new case should be taken up after the closing hour of the Court but the hearing of a case taken up before that hour may, if necessary, be continued for a short time.

 

  1. Holidays.– The holidays allowed to the Civil Courts are annually prescribed by the High Court, under the provisions of [section 25 of the Punjab Civil Courts Ordinance 1962 (II of 1962)] and no other holidays can be allowed by any other authority. The list of Civil holidays comprises general holidays and local holidays, the latter being usually limited to seven days in the year for each district.

 

  1. Taking up cases on holidays.– Civil suits and appeals ought not, as a rule, to be taken up [*****] on a holiday; but any Civil suit or appeal may be legally heard, by consent of the parties, [*****] on a holiday, if the Presiding Officer of the Court thinks it expedient, for any reason, to keep his Court open for the purpose.

 

  1. Attendance of Ministerial establishment.– The members of the ministerial establishment of the Courts should (subject to any special rules regarding the Vacation Department) attend their office on all days except on holidays allowed to Civil Courts. An official may, however, be ordered by the Presiding Officer to attend office on a holiday to clear off arrears. An official should not except in most exceptional cases be made to attend on a holiday pertaining to his religion.

 

  1. Preparation of cause lists.– Cause Lists of cases fixed for each day should be prepared a day before. These lists should be exhibited in the Court room, or the verandah of the Court-house, at least by the afternoon of the day preceding that to which they relate, for the information of parties and their pleaders and the order of causes in the list should not be departed from without cogent reasons, unless the case be settled by compromise or the claim be admitted before the day fixed for trial. A strict adherence to this practice will secure punctual attendance and greatly promote the dispatch of business and the convenience of parties and witnesses. Cases should as far as possible be so arranged in the cause lists that the litigants may not have to wait long for simple cases and petty work such as miscellaneous applications, executions and objections, etc.

 

  1. Form of cause list.– Cause lists should be in the following form:-

 

IN THE COURT OF       _______________________________

 

CAUSE LIST FOR          _______________________________

 

Day of the week and date No. Plaintiff, Appellant or Petitioner Defendant or Respondent Description of the case REMARKS
           
           
           
           

 

 

PART B —  RECEPTION OF PLAINTS AND APPLICATIONS

 

  1. Not to be received on holidays.– Plaints and petitions should be received by the Civil Courts on every day, which is not an authorized holiday, during office hours.

 

  1. Reception by Court not sitting at headquarters of the district.– Every Court whose place of sitting is at a distance from the headquarters of the district, should receive plaints and petitions direct under such general directions as the District Judge or the [Civil Judge], if so empowered under [section 16 of the Punjab Civil Courts Ordinance, 1962 (II of 1962)] may prescribe.

 

  1. Distribution of cases.–(i) Plaints and petitions presented at the head-quarters of a district will be received and distributed by the District Judge who may delegate this power under [section 16 of the Punjab Civil Courts Ordinance, 1962 (II of 1962)] to any [Civil Judge] and should always do so when it is for the convenience of the litigants. Regard should be had to the provisions of sections 15 and 20 and Order IV, Rule 1, of the Code of Civil Procedure, in framing directions regarding the reception of Civil Suits.

 

(ii)           Duty of distributing officer.– The work of distribution of cases should not be left to the Reader or the Clerk of Court. The Judge should attend to it personally, noting in his own hand the name of person presenting the case and the Court to which the case has been assigned for trial. He should also inform the person presenting the plaint or petition of the date on which he is required to attend the Court to which the case is sent and note the fact of his having done so in his order. This will avoid the necessity of a notice being issued to the plaintiff or petitioner by the Court to which the case is sent.

 

(iii)         List of cases assigned to be exhibited.– At the end of each day a list of all the cases so distributed should be exhibited in the Court of the distributing officer. Similarly each Court should exhibit at the end of each day a list of the cases assigned to it by the distributing officer.

Note:- In almost all the districts in the Punjab District Judges have delegated their powers of distribution of plaints to the Senior Civil Judges under section 15 of the Punjab Civil Courts Ordinance, 1962,(II of 1962)].

 

  1. Examination, endorsement and distribution.– Every plaint or petition should, if possible, specify the provision of law under which it is presented and should, at the time of its reception, be at once endorsed with the date of its receipt, and such endorsement should be signed by the receiving officer. The Court-fees should be forthwith examined and cancelled in the manner prescribed in that behalf. The receiving officer should prepare a list of all plaints and applications received each day, and be held responsible that they are duly distributed in accordance with the orders passed thereupon and the general instructions (if any) given by the District Judge or the Senior [Civil Judge] in that respect.

The Daily List of plaints etc. shall be arranged and preserved month-wise and year-wise so as to form an annual register to be called “Daily Institution List.

 

  1. Insufficiently stamped plaints, etc.– It shall be the duty of the Clerks of Court to District and Sessions Judges, Senior [Civil Judges] and Judge of the Court of Small Causes and Readers to all other [Civil Judges] to see that appeals, plaints and petitions, etc. received in the Courts, to which they are attached, are properly stamped. When they are in doubt what Court fee is due on any document, it shall be their duty to refer the matter to the Presiding Officer for orders.

These officials are primarily responsible for any loss of revenue caused to Government by insufficiently stamped documents having been received owning to their neglect, but the ultimate responsibility for the loss lies on the Judge of the Court whose duty it is to look into such matters either when the plaints are instituted or when the plaints came up for hearing before him.

Note:- The Clerk of Court to the Senior [Civil Judge] is responsible for checking the Court-fee on those plaints only which the Senior [Civil-Judge] retains for trial by himself. In other cases the Reader of the Court to which the suit is sent for trial is responsible.

Provided that the personal responsibility of the officers concerned shall only be enforced where obvious mistakes have been made and not in cases in which a genuine doubt was possible regarding the correctness of the Court-fee due.

 

  1. Transfer of cases to equalize work.– The equal distribution of work amongst the Courts available can always be effected by the transfer of cases when necessary from one Court to another under the authority vested in the District Judge.

When a case is transferred by judicial order, the Court passing the order should fix a date on which the parties should attend the Court to which the case is transferred.

 

  1. (a) Petition box.– The petition box shall be placed in the verandah of the Court house at about one hour before the Court sits, an official being specially made to attend early for this purpose. It shall be opened in the presence of the Judge at about 15 minutes after the Court opens when all petitions shall be presented to and initialled by him. The Judge shall pass proper orders forthwith or inform the petitioner when orders will be ready after the necessary “Kaifiyats” have been put up. The box shall be replaced in the verandah and opened again shortly before the Court rises for luncheon in the presence of the Judge and the same procedure followed. It shall then be replaced once more in the verandah and opened for the last time, 15 minutes before the time fixed for the rising of the Court and the procedure prescribed above followed. After the Judge has arisen the box will be brought back to the Court room and no further petitions will be accepted.

A list of all miscellaneous or execution applications, on which orders cannot be passed forthwith, should be prepared and exhibited outside the courtroom specifying the date fixed for the disposal of each application.

 

(b)           Urgent cases.– In urgent cases, however, the Judge may exercise his discretion and personally receive documents presented to him direct at any time.

 

(c)           Reception by ministerial establishment prohibited.– The members of the ministerial establishment are strictly forbidden to receive petitions, plaints or other documents direct from lawyers and their clerks or from litigants except when the Judge is on leave and no other Judicial Officer is in charge of his current duties. District Judges should, however, invariably make arrangements for the reception of plaints and petitions, etc. by another officer of a Court when an officer is temporarily absent, on leave, tour or otherwise. Where there is a single Judicial Officer at a station such as a Moffassal or outlying Courts and who is on leave, arrangements should be made for the reception of plaints, petitions, documents, etc. by the Tahsildar or the Naib Tahsildar in consultation with the Deputy Commissioner.

 

(d)           Exceptions.– The above orders do not apply to applications put in by counsel for the inspection of records which may be presented to the Presiding Officer personally, nor do they apply to talbanas and stamped postal envelopes filed by the litigants, which should he received direct by the Ahlmad or the Moharrir and a receipt given for the same whether demanded or not.

 

  1. Who can file petition, etc.– Plaints and petitions must be filed, except, when otherwise specially provided by any law for the time being in force, by the party in person or by his recognized agent, or by a duly authorized and qualified legal practitioner.

 

  1. Recognised agents.– Recognized agents are defined in Order III, Rule 2, of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908. As to the appointment of a pleader, the provisions of Rule 4 of Order III [of the said Code] and the instructions of the High Court given in Chapter 16, part A of this Volume should be carefully studied.

 

  1. Powers of attorney.– When parties appear by pleaders, or agents duly authorized in that behalf, their powers-of-attorney should, when practicable, be filed in original with the plaint. Where the power-of-attorney is a general one, a copy should be filed, the original being presented for verification. When so filed the power of attorney will be considered to be in force until revoked, with the leave of the Court, by a writing signed by the client and filed in Court, or until the client or pleader or agent dies, or all proceedings in the suit are ended so far as regards the client.

 

  1. Sending by post.– The reception of plaints and petitions made under the Code of Civil Procedure, for judicial purposes by post, is irregular. All applications of a judicial nature received by post should be filed and on each application so filed an endorsement should be made to the effect that it was filed as not having been properly presented. This does not apply to applications for copies of judicial proceedings, which are not applications for judicial purposes made under the Code; but are applications dealt with under administrative authority

 

 

 

PART C — EXAMINATION OF THE PLAINT

 

  1. Examination.—On the presentation or receipt of a plaint, the Court should examine it with special reference to the following points, viz.:-

(i)            whether the plaint contains the particulars specified in Order VII, Rule 1, and conforms to the other rules of pleadings in Orders VI and VII and rules made by the High Court thereunder;

 

(ii)           whether, there is, prima facie, any non-joinder or mis-joinder of parties, or mis-joinder of causes of action;

 

(iii)         whether any of the parties to the suit are minors and, if so, whether they are properly represented as laid down in Chapter1-M(d) of this volume;

 

(iv)         whether the plaint is duly signed and verified;

 

(v)          whether the suit is within the jurisdiction of the Court or must be returned for presentation to proper Court (Order VII, Rule 10);

(vi)         whether the plaint is liable to be rejected for any of the reasons given in order VII, Rule 11;

 

(vii)        whether the documents attached to the plaint (if any) are accompanied by lists in the prescribed form and are in order;

 

(viii)       whether the plaintiff has filed a proceeding containing his address for service during the litigation as required by Rule 19 of Order VII as framed by the High Court;

 

(ix)          whether the plaint is accompanied by a statement giving the names and addresses of the legal representatives and of the person who in the event of death of the plaintiff shall intimate such fact to the Court (Order VII, Rule 26, CPC)

 

(x)           whether the plaint is accompanied by as many copies on plain paper of the plaint as there are defendants plus two extra copies and draft forms of summons and fees for the service thereof {Order VII, Rule 9 (1A), CPC};

 

(xi)          whether the suit is not barred by time, and if, prima facie, it is so barred, whether plaint shows the ground on which exemption is claimed (Order VII, Rule 6); and

 

(xii)        whether the plaint is accompanied by as many registered envelopes (acknowledgment due) as the number of defendants for simultaneous service of the summons through post (Order V, Rule 10-A).

 

  1. The provisions of the Code with regard to the pleading (which term includes the plaint and written statements of parties) should be carefully studied. The principal rules of pleading may be briefly stated as follows:-

(a)           The whole case must be stated in the pleadings, that is to say, all material facts must be stated (Order VI, Rule 2).

(b)           Only material facts are to be stated. The evidence by which they are to be proved is not to be stated (Order VI, Rules 2, 10, 11 and 12).

 

(c)           The facts are to be stated concisely.

 

(d)           It is not necessary to allege the performance of any condition precedent; an averment of performance is implied in every pleading but a non-performance of condition precedent, if relied on, must be distinctly stated (Order VI, Rule 6).

 

(e)           It is not necessary to set out the whole or any part of a document unless the precise words thereof are necessary. It is sufficient to state the effect of the document as briefly as possible (Order VI, Rule 9).

 

(f)            It is not necessary to allege a matter of fact which the law presumes. or as to which the burden of proof lies on the other side (Order VI, Rule 13).

 

(g)           When misrepresentation, fraud, undue influence, etc. are pleaded, necessary particulars must always be given (Order VI, Rule 4).

 

(h)           When a suit is prima facie time-barred the ground on which exemption is claimed must be stated (Order VII, Rule 6).

 

If the plaint is prolix or indefinite or omits to give the necessary particulars or to specify the relief claimed precisely or is defective in any other respect it should be returned to the party or his counsel for such amendment as may be necessary in the actual presence of the Presiding Officer after he has signed the endorsement. The Court has wide powers in this respect (see Order VI, Rules 16 and 17). Where amendment is directed, an order should be recorded by the judge indicating the particulars about the necessary amendment and fixing a date for filing the amended plaint.

 

  1. (a) Non-joinder and mis-joinder of parties and causes of action.– Attention is drawn to the provisions of law contained in Orders I and II of the Civil Procedure Code relating to non-joinder of parties and mis-joinder of causes of action and parties and as to representative suits:-

 

(i)            Joinder of parties.– Order I, rules 1 and 3 provide in what case several plaintiffs or defendants may be joined in one suit.

 

(ii)           Representative suits.– Order I, rule 8 provides that when there are numerous persons having the same interest in one suit, one or more of such persons may sue or defend on behalf of all with the permission of the Court .

 

(iii)         Objection as to non-joinder or mis-joinder.– Order I, rule 9 lays down that no suit shall be defeated by reason of mis-joinder or non-joinder of parties and Order I , rule 13 and Order II, rule 7 lay down that objections as to non-joinder or mis-joinder of parties or causes of action, etc. should be made at the earliest stage of the case.

 

(iv)          Joinder of causes of action.– Order II rules 3 to 5 provide in what cases several causes of action may be joined in one suit.

 

(v)           Separate trials.– Order I, rule 2 and Order II, rule 6 provide for power of the Court to order separate trial if the joinder of several plaintiffs or several causes of action is inconvenient.

 

(vi)          Striking out and adding parties.– Order I, rule 10 gives power to the Court to strike out unnecessary parties and add necessary parties.

 

(b)           Necessary parties.– Suits for inheritance, partition or declaration of right in order to effect partition, contribution, redemption, foreclosure, administration of property, dissolution and winding up of a partnership, and the like, cannot be properly disposed of unless all persons interested in the matter are before the Court. Therefore, in cases of this description, if it appears that any necessary parties have not been joined, the plaintiff should be ordered to join them.

 

  1. Signing and verification.– The plaint must be signed by the plaintiff, or, if by reason of absence or other good cause the plaintiff is unable to sign it, by his duly authorised agent. It must also be signed by the plaintiff’s pleader (if any ) and be verified by the plaintiff, or by some other person proved to the satisfaction of the Court to be acquainted with the facts of the case .

 

The personal attendance of the plaintiff in Court for the purpose of verification is unnecessary. The verification must, however, be signed by the person making it.

 

  1. Jurisdiction.– The jurisdiction of a Court depends upon the nature and value of the suit. (For detailed instruction see Chapter-II on “Jurisdiction of Courts” and Chapter-III on “Valuation of suits”). If a suit is not within the jurisdiction of the Court, the plaint must be returned in the presence of the Presiding Officer for presentation to proper Court. In such cases the Presiding Officer must record on the plaint his reasons for returning it along with the other particulars mentioned in sub-rule (2) of rule 10 of Order VII.

 

  1. Rejection of plaint.– If the plaint discloses no cause of action, or is barred by any law on the statements made therein, or if the relief claimed is under-valued or the plaint is not sufficiently stamped and the plaintiff fails to correct the valuation or pay the deficiency in the Court-fee within the time fixed by Court the plaint should be “rejected” under Order VII, Rule 11, reasons being recorded by the Presiding Officer in support of the order.

It should be noted that the correct order in such cases is to ‘reject the plaint’ and not ‘dismiss the suit’. The rejection of a plaint does not preclude the institution of a fresh suit on the same cause of action, provided of course, it is not otherwise barred (e.g., by limitation, etc.) by that time .

 

  1. Comparison of copies of account.– Copies of any shop book or account produced should be compared with the original by Chief Ministerial Officer of the Court and the shop book or account should then be returned after marking the entries relied upon (Order VII, Rule 17).

When a shop book or other account written in a language other than English or the language of the Court is produced with a translation or transliteration of the relevant entry, the party producing it shall not be required to present a separate affidavit as to the correctness of the translation or transliteration, but shall add a certificate, on the document itself, that it is a full and true translation or transliteration of the original entry, and no examination or comparison by the ministerial officer shall be required except by a special order of the Court.

 

  1. Address of the parties.– The proceeding containing address for service is intended to facilitate the service of processes throughout the litigation (including appeals, etc,) and it is, therefore, important to see that it is duly filed at the outset according to this rule. Failure to comply with the rule is liable to be punished with dismissal of the suit but such an order may properly be passed in extreme cases when the failure is intentional and contumacious.

 

  1. Land suits.– If the plaint relates to agricultural land and the plaintiff is illiterate, it should be scrutinised with special care, according to the following directions:-

 

(i)            The Presiding Officer shall ascertain by careful examination of the plaintiff or his agent, whether the prayer in the plaint corresponds in all particulars with the exact relief which the plaintiff orally describes himself as seeking. If the oral statements of the plaintiff or his agent are at variance with the written description of his claim, the plaint shall, in his or his agent’s presence, be returned for amendment, and no amended plaint should be accepted until the Court is satisfied that it correctly expresses the claim which the plaintiff desires to establish.

 

(ii)           Every such plaint shall be accompanied by a statement in the prescribed form setting forth the particulars relating thereto recorded in the Settlement record and in the last Jamabandi. This statement shall be verified by the signature of the Patwari of the Circle in which the land concerned is situated. Where, by reason of partition, river action or other cause the entries in the Settlement record and in the last Jamabandi do not accord, a brief explanation of the reason should be given in the column of remarks. Where the suit is for a specific plot with definite boundaries, it shall also be accompanied by a map, drawn to scale, showing clearly the specific plot claimed, or in relation to which the decree is to be made, and so much of the fields adjoining it, also drawn to scale, as may be sufficient to facilitate identification. The specific plot and adjoining fields shall be numbered in accordance with the statement and the map shall be certified as correct by the Patwari or other person who prepared it. Where, however, the suit is for the whole of one or more khasra numbers as shown in the Settlement map, or a share in such numbers, and not for a specific portion thereof no map will be required unless it is necessary for other reasons to show the boundaries of such khasra numbers.

 

  1. Suits for recovery of money, mesne profits and accounts.– If the plaintiff seeks the recovery of money, the plaint should state the precise amount, as far as the case admits. In a suit for mesne profits or unsettled accounts it is sufficient to state the amount approximately.

 

  1. Suits by or against firms.– Suits by or against firms should be in the form prescribed in Order XXX. An explanation has been added by the High Court to Rule I of Order XXX, making it applicable to joint Hindu trading partnerships (Notification No. 2212-G, dated 12th May 1909).

 

  1. Copies or concise statements of plaints.– When the plaint is admitted (after such amendment as may be found necessary), the plaintiff should be required to give as may copies of the plaint on plain paper as there are defendants, for being supplied to them. If the plaint is long, or the number of defendants is large, the Court may permit concise statements of the plaint to be supplied instead. Such copies or concise statements must be examined by the chief ministerial officer and signed, if found correct (Order VII, Rule 9).

 

  1. Parcha Yad Dasht.– When a plaint or petition is admitted and a date fixed for summoning of the other party or for any other purpose a memorandum (parcha yad dasht) on strong paper in the form given below duly filled in shall be given to the plaintiff or the petitioner or his agent if he is illiterate and not represented by counsel.

 

 

FORM OF PARCHA YAD DASHT

 

IN THE COURT OF THE _______________________________________ AT

 

COURT HOURS FROM ____________A.M.TO_________________P.M.

 

Civil (Suit) (Appeal) (Miscellaneous Application) No._____ of (year) _______.

 

Parties Date of receipt Date fixed for hearing Place at which attendance is required Purpose for which date is fixed Remarks
           

 

A             By (Officer of Court)

B             From (Name and description of party presenting)

 

INSTRUCTIONS

  1. A parcha is to be given without demand (1) to the person who presents the plaint, appeal or petition, and (2) when a case is not disposed of at the first hearing to the Defendant or Respondent or, if there be several, to such Defendants or Respondents as the Court may direct.

 

  1. Every entry in any column after the first is to be signed by the officer making it.

 

  1. If the place is the fixed headquarters of the Court, it need not be specified, but in every other instance it must be specified.

 

  1. Parcha Yad Dasht.– A similar parcha shall be given to the opposite party when he appears if he is illiterate and not represented by counsel.

 

  1. Filling in of the parcha.– Parcha shall be filled in and signed by the Reader of the Court and given to the parties concerned in the presence of the Presiding Officer as soon as the date of hearing is fixed.

In Small Cause Courts and in the Courts of the District Judges this parcha may be filled in by any other official if the Presiding Officer so directs.

 

  1. Filling in of the parcha.– The above parcha shall be used throughout the proceedings and properly filled in whenever the case is adjourned. If the parcha is lost a duplicate should be given.

 

 

 

PART D — SERVICE OF PROCESSES

 

ISSUE OF SUMMONS TO THE DEFENDANT

 

  1. Summonses for final disposal or settlement of issues.– In Order V, Rule 5, of the Code of Civil Procedure, it is laid down that the Court shall determine, at the time of issuing the summons, whether it shall be for the settlement of issues only, or for the final disposal of the suit, and the summons shall contain a direction accordingly; and a proviso to the rule adds that in every suit heard by a Court of Small Causes the summons must be for the final disposal of the suit .

 

  1. When summonses for final disposal may issue.– In determining whether the summons shall be for the settlement of issues only, or for the final disposal of the case, the Court must be guided by the nature of the suit, and the probability or otherwise of the facts stated in the plaint being disputed by the defendant on grounds which will require the production of much evidence or will involve much contention. Where the case appears simple, and it seems probable that a correct judgment can be formed at the first hearing from the examination of the parties or their agents, and such evidence, oral or documentary, as they can bring with them, the summons should be for the final disposal of the case.

 

  1. Adjournment of case in case of summonses for final disposal.- It will, however, be remembered that when the summons is for final disposal, the Court is not bound to dispose of the case on the date fixed for hearing, but can adjourn the case to another date, to enable the parties to produce evidence, when this seems necessary in the interests of justice, and especially when there is reason to believe that one party has been taken by surprise by the pleadings of, or statements made on examination by the other.

 

  1. Suitors should be made to know what summons for final disposal means.– Care should be taken to make suitors understand, in cases in which the summons is for final disposal, that all their evidence must be produced on the day fixed for disposal.

 

  1. (1) Not later than seven days after the settlement of issues, the parties shall submit to the Court a list of witnesses whom they propose to call either to give evidence or to produce documents.

 

(2)           A party shall not be permitted to call witnesses other than those contained in the said list except with the permission of the court and after showing good cause for the omission of the said witnesses from the list; and if the Court grants such permission, it shall record the reasons therefore.

 

5-A.        Except where it appears to the Court that a summons under Order XVI should be served by the Court in the same manner as summons to a defendant, the Court shall make over for service such summons to the party applying therefore.

 

5-B.        Every summons under Order XVI not being a summons made over to a party for service under rule 7A of that Order, shall be served as nearly as in the manner of service on a defendant and the rules in Order V as to proof of service shall apply thereto. Such summons shall not be issued unless an application is made not later than fourteen days prior to the date of hearing of the case and subject to the deposit of necessary expenses for the summoning of the witnesses.]

 

  1. Signing of summons. Copies of plaint to be attached.– Summonses should be clearly and legibly written and signed, and the seal of the Court must be affixed. Order V, Rule 1(3) of the Code requires that the summons shall be signed by the Judge or such officer as he appoints. In Courts, provided with a Clerk of Court he may be authorized to sign summonses; in all other Courts Reader may be authorized to sign them. The signature should in all cases be fully and legibly written. A copy or concise statement of the plaint should be attached to each summons.

 

  1. References.– As regards the general procedure to be followed in effecting service of processes, personal attention to service and proof of service, special procedure in the case of Government Servants, and persons in Military employ, etc., the time to be allowed for service of processes in [Tribal Areas], foreign countries, Chapter 7, Volume IV, “Processes — Civil Courts” may be referred to. For service of Processes of Appellate Courts — See Chapter 14-B, Volume I

 

 

 

PART E

 

WRITTEN STATEMENTS

 

  1. When written statements required.– It is laid down in Order VIII, Rule 1 of the Code of Civil Procedure, that a defendant may, and if so required by the Court shall, at or before the first hearing or within such time as the Court may permit, present a written statement of his defence. Ordinarily it is advisable to require such a written statement and the Court should at the time of issuing the summons call for a written statement from the defendant on the date fixed for his appearance. In most cases, there should be no difficulty in presenting such a written statement on the date fixed, and no adjournment should be given for the purpose except for good cause shown, and in proper cases, costs should be awarded to the opposite side. Laxity in granting adjournments for the purpose of filing written statements should be avoided, and it should be noted that in extreme cases, contumacious refusal to comply with the Court’s order is liable to be dealt with under order VIII, Rule 10, Civil Procedure Code.

[According to the proviso to Rule 1 of Order VIII, the period to be allowed for filing of the written statement shall not, ordinarily, exceed thirty days.]

 

  1. Documents to accompany written statement.– Rule 1 of Order VIII (as amended by the High Court) further requires the defendant to produce with the written statement all documents in his possession or power on which he bases his defence or claim to set off, if any. If he relies in support of his case on any other documents, not in his possession or power, he must annex a list thereof to the written statement. With the written statement, the defendant must also file his address for service during the litigation.

 

  1. Replications.– When the defendant has filed a written statement the Court may call upon the plaintiff to file a written statement in reply. Under Order VIII, Rule 9, the Court, has power to call upon both parties to file written statements at any time and this power should be freely used for elucidating the pleas when necessary, especially in complicated cases. In simple cases, however, examination of the parties, after the defendant has filed his written statement is generally found to be sufficient.

 

  1. Separate written statements.– In all cases where there are several defendants the Court should, as a rule, take a separate written statement from each defendant, unless the defences of any defendants filing a joint written statement are identical in all respects. There may be different defences based upon a variety of circumstances and these should not be allowed to be mixed up together in a single statement merely because all the defendants deny the plaintiff’s claim.

 

  1. Court-fees.– Written statements called from the parties may be on plain paper, but when the defendant claims in his written statements any sum by way of set off under Order VIII, Rule 6, Civil Procedure Code, the statement must be stamped in the same manner as a plaint in a suit for the recovery of that sum.

 

  1. Contents.– A “written statement” is included in the definition of “pleading” (vide Order VI, Rule 1) and should conform to the general rules of pleadings given in Order VI as well as the special rules with regard to written statements in Order VIII. All admissions and denials of facts should be specific and precise and not evasive or ambiguous. When allegations of fraud, etc. are set up, the particulars should be fully given. When any legal provision is relied on, not only the provision of law relied upon should be mentioned, but also the facts making it applicable should be stated. For instance, when a plea of res judicata is raised, not only the provision of law (e.g., section 11 of Civil Procedure Code) should be mentioned, but also the particulars of the previous suit which is alleged to bar the suit.

 

 

 

PART F

 

SETTLEMENT OF ISSUES

 

  1. Stress on framing correct issues.– The trial of a suit falls into two broad divisions– the first part leading up to and including the framing of issues and the second, consisting of the hearing of the evidence produced by the parties on those issues and the decision thereof. Issues are material propositions of facts and law, which are in controversy between the parties and the correct decision of a suit naturally depends on the correct determination of these propositions. The utmost care and attention, is therefore, needed in ascertaining the real matters in dispute between the parties and fixing the issues in precise terms. In most cases the main difficulty of the trial is overcome when the correct issues are framed. A few hours spent by the Court at the outset in studying and elucidating the pleadings, may mean a saving of several days, if not weeks, in the later stages of the trial.

 

  1. Framing of issues by counsel.– In some Courts, the framing of issues is left to the pleaders for the parties concerned. This practice is illegal and must cease. The Code contemplates that the Presiding Officer of the Court should himself examine the pleadings, get the points in dispute elucidated and frame issues thereon.

 

  1. Elucidation of pleadings for framing issues.– The main foundation for the issues is supplied by the pleadings of the parties, viz, the plaint and the written statements. But owing to the ignorance of the parties or other reasons, it is frequently found that the facts are stated neither correctly nor clearly in the pleadings. The Code gives ample powers to the Court to elucidate the pleadings by different methods prescribed in Orders X, XI and XII of the Code and in most cases it is essential to do so, before framing the issues.
  2. Elucidation of pleadings for framing issues.– On the date fixed for the settlement of issues, the Court should, therefore, carefully examine the pleadings of the parties and see whether, allegations of fact made by each party are either admitted or denied by the opposite party, as they ought to be. If any allegations of fact are not so admitted or denied in the pleadings of any party, either expressly or by clear implication, the Court should proceed to question the party or his pleader and record categorically his admission or denial of those allegations (Order X, Rule 1).

 

  1. Examination of Parties.– Order X, Rule 2 of the Code, empower the Court at the first or any subsequent hearing to examine any party appearing in person or present in Court or any person, accompanying him, who is able to answer all material questions relating to the suit. This is a most valuable provision, and if properly used, results frequently in saving a lot of time. To use it properly, the Court should begin by studying the pleas and recording the admissions and denials of the parties under Order X, Rule 1, as stated above. The Court will then be in a position to ascertain what facts need further elucidation by examination of the parties. The parties should then be examined alternatively on all such points and the process of examination continued until all the matters in conflict and especially matters of fact are clearly brought to a focus. When there are more defendants than one, they should be examined separately so as to avoid any confusion between their respective defences.

 

[6.           Examination on Oath.– From Order XIV, Rule 3 of the Code, it will appear that every allegation of fact made by any person other than a pleader should be on oath or solemn affirmation.]

 

  1. Personal attendance of parties.– When a pleader for a party or his agent is unable to state the facts to the satisfaction of the Court, the Court has the power, to require the personal attendance of the party concerned (Order X, Rule 4). It may also be noted here that the Court can require the personal attendance of the defendant on the date fixed for the framing of issues by an order to that effect in the summons issued to him (Order V, Rule 3).
  2. Examination should be detailed.– In examining the parties or their pleaders, the Court should insist on a detailed and accurate statement of facts. A brief or vague oral plea, e.g., that the suit is barred be limitation, or by the rule of res judicata, should not be received without a full statement of the material facts and the provision of law on which the plea is based. similarly when fraud, collusion, custom, mis-joinder, estoppel, etc., is pleaded, the facts on which the pleas are based should be fully elucidated. Any inclination of a party or his pleader to evade straightforward answers or make objections or pleas, which appear to the Court to be frivolous, can be promptly met, when necessary, by an order for a further written statement on payment of costs. The party concerned should also be warned that he will be liable to pay the costs of the opposite party, on that part of the case at any rate, if he failed to substantiate his allegations.

 

  1. Personal examination of parties.– Examination of the parties in person is particularly useful in the case of illiterate litigants. Much hardship to the people will be prevented, if the Presiding Officers examine the parties personally and sift the cases thoroughly at the outset.

 

  1. Amendment of pleadings.– The examination of the parties frequently discloses that the pleadings in the plaint or written statement are not correctly stated. In such cases, these should be ordered to be amended and the amendment initialled by the party concerned. If any mis-joinder or multifariousness is discovered, the Court should take action to have the defect removed.

 

  1. Forms prescribed for examination of parties.– In order to ensure due compliance with these instructions as regards the examination of parties, the High Court has prescribed forms on which such examination should be recorded. Appellate Courts should see that the forms prescribed are used and should not fail to take notice of subordinate Courts which neglect to follow the directions here given.

 

  1. Utility of provisions as to discovery, inspection and admission.– The provisions of Order XI and Order XII of the Code with regard to “discovery and inspection” and “admissions” are also very important for the purposes of ascertaining the precise cases of the parties and narrowing down the field of controversy.

These provisions are little understood and are not utilized at present as much as they should be. The Courts should make themselves conversant with them and encourage the parties to make free use of them, especially in long and intricate cases. It should be noted that under section 30 of the Code the Court has power to make orders suo moto; as regards delivery of interrogatories for the purposes of discovery, inspection and admissions. If these provisions are properly used, they will result in a saving of considerable cost to the parties and also curtail the duration of the trial.

 

  1. Parties and their counsel should be encouraged to use freely the provisions of order XII, rules 2 and 4, Civil Procedure Code (Notice to admit documents and facts). They should be warned that if they fail to avail themselves of these provisions they will not be allowed costs of proving facts and documents, notice of which could have been given. When hearing evidence the Court should make a note whether the parties have made use of these provisions, and if they have not done so, should disallow costs incurred in proving such facts and documents in passing final orders.

 

  1. Form of issues.– When the pleadings have thus been exhausted and the Court has before it the plaint, pleas, written statements, admissions and denials recorded under Order X, Rule 1, examination of parties recorded under Order X, Rule 2 and admissions of facts or documents made under Order XII of the Code, it will be in a position to frame correctly the issues upon the points actually in dispute between the parties. Each issue should state in an interrogative form one point in dispute. Every issue should form a single question, and as far as possible issues should not be put in an alternative form. In other words, each issue should contain a definite proposition of fact or law which one party avers and the other denies. An issue in the form, so often seen, of a group of confused questions is no issue at all, and is productive of nothing but confusion at the trial. A double or alternative issue generally indicates that the Court does not see clearly on which side or in what manner the true issue arises, and on whom the burden of proof should lie, and an issue in general terms such as “Is the plaintiff entitled to a decree” is meaningless. If there are more defendants than one who make separate answers to the claim, the Court should note against each issue the defendant or defendants between whom and the plaintiff the issue arises.

 

  1. Burden of proof.– The burden of proof as to each issue should be carefully determined and the name of the party on whom the burden lies, stated opposite to the issue.

 

 

 

PART G

 

DOCUMENTARY EVIDENCE

 

  1. Production of documents and list along with plaint and written statement on final hearing.– The main provisions of the Code with regard to the production of documents by the parties are as follow:-

 

(a)           According to Order VII, Rule 14, when the plaintiff sues upon a document in his possession or power, he shall produce it in Court when the plaint is presented and deliver the document itself or a copy thereof to be filed with the plaint. If he relies on any other documents, whether in his possession or power or not, as evidence in support of his case, he shall enter such documents in a list to be annexed to the plaint. If the documents are not so produced or entered in the list, they cannot be proved at a later stage without the leave of the Court, unless they fall within the exception given in sub-rule 2 of Order VII, Rule 18.

 

(b)           Order VIII, Rule 1 (as amended by the High Court), similarly requires the defendant to produce with his written statement any documents upon which his defence or claim to set-off is founded. The defendant must also annex to the written statement a list of all documents on which he intends to rely — whether in his possession or power or not — in support of his defence or claim to set-off.

 

(c)           Order XIII, Rule I, lays down that the parties shall produce at the first hearing of the suit documentary evidence of every description in their possession or power on which they intend to rely, and which has not been already filed in Court and all documents which the Court has ordered to be produced. If the documents are not so produced at the first hearing, they cannot be produced at a later stage unless good cause is shown to the satisfaction of the Court.

 

[(d)       Order XVI Rule I provides for filing a list, within seven days after settlement of issues, of such witnesses who may be called to produce documents. Any application made beyond seven days should not be allowed except on showing good cause.]

 

  1. List of documents and their comparison with the list.– Whenever any documents are produced by the parties in the course of a suit, whether with the plaint or written statement, or at a later stage, they must always be accompanied by a list, in duplicate, in the form given below. Documents produced must be forthwith compared with the list, and, if found correct, the original list should be signed by the Reader of the Court and its duplicate copy similarly signed should be returned to the party presenting the document. In column 4, the Court should note the manner in which the document was dealt with, i.e. whether it was admitted in evidence or rejected and returned to the party concerned or impounded, as the case may be.

List of documents produced by Plaintiff/Defendant under order XIII, Rule 1, Civil Procedure Code.

 

In the Court of ______________________ at_______________DISTRICT

Suit No._______________________________________________of (year)

Plaintiff.

Versus

Defendant.

List of Documents produced with the plaint (or at first hearing )on behalf of (plaintiff or defendant)

This list was filed by ___________ this day of (year)

 

1 2 3 4

WHAT BECAME OF THE DOCUMENT

5
Sr.No. Description and date if any, of the document. What the document is intended to prove. If brought on the record, the Exhibit mark put on the document. If rejected, date of return to party and signature of party or pleader to whom the document was returned. Remarks
 

 

         

 

Signature of party or
pleader producing the list.

 

Note–Judicial Officers should instruct all petition-writers practicing in their Courts to prepare lists in the above form for all documents intended to be produced in Court.”

 

  1. Calling upon parties to produce documents.– The Court should formally call upon the parties at first hearing at the time of framing issues to produce their documents and should make a note that it has done so. [On production of documents, the Court may call upon the parties to admit or deny the documents produced in the Court and record their admission, or as the case may be, their denial.] Forms have been prescribed by the High Court for the examination of the parties with reference to their documents and these should be invariably used. If the printed forms are not at any time available, the questions prescribed therein should be asked and the questions as well as the answers noted. If these instructions are strictly carried out, there will be no justification for the plea frequently put forward by ignorant litigants, with regard to the late production of a document that they had brought the document at the first hearing but were not called upon to produce it.

 

  1. Late production of documents.– The above provisions as regards the production of the documents at the initial stage of a suit are intended to minimize the chances of fabrication of documentary evidence during the course of the suit as well as to give the earliest possible notice to each party of the documentary evidence relied upon by the opposite party. These provisions should, therefore, be strictly observed, and if any document is tendered at a later stage, the Court should consider carefully the nature of the document sought to be produced (e.g., whether there is any suspicion about its genuineness or not) and the reasons given for its non-production at the proper stage, before admitting it. The fact of a document being in possession of a servant or agent of a party on whose behalf it is tendered is not itself a sufficient reason for allowing the document to be produced after the time prescribed by Order XIII, Rule 1. The Court must always record its reasons for admission of the document in such cases, if it decides to admit it (Order XIII, Rule 2).

 

  1. Suspicious, forged or not properly stamped documents.– Should any document which has been partially erased or interlined, or which otherwise presents a suspicious appearance, be presented at any time in the course of proceedings, a note should be made of the fact; and, should a well founded suspicion of fraudulent alteration or forgery subsequently arise, the document should be impounded under Order XIII, Rule 8, and action taken under Section 476, 478 and 479 of the Code of Criminal Procedure. Similarly, should any document be presented which appears to have been executed on unstamped or insufficiently stamped paper, action should be taken under Section 33 and 35 of the stamp Act, 1899. (See also Volume IV, Chapter 4, “Court-fees Stamps”).

 

  1. Production and admission of documents distinguished.– Court should be careful to distinguish between mere production of documents and their ‘admission in evidence’ after being either ‘admitted’ by the opposite party or ‘proved’ according to law. When documents are ‘produced’ by the parties, they are only temporarily placed on the record subject to their being ‘admitted in evidence’ in due course. Only documents which are duly ‘admitted in evidence’ form a part of the record, while the rest must be returned to the parties producing them (Order XIII, Rule 7).

 

  1. Documents must be tendered in evidence.– Every document which a party intends to use as evidence against his opponent must be formally tendered by him in evidence in the course of proving his case. If a document has been placed on the record, it can be referred to for the purpose. If it is not on the record, it must be called from and produced by, the person in whose custody it is.

 

  1. Procedure when documents admitted by the opposite party.– If the opponent does not object to the document being admitted in evidence, an endorsement to that effect must be made by the Judge with his own hand; and, if the document is not such as is forbidden by the legislature to be used as evidence, the Judge will admit it, cause it or so much of it as the parties may desire to be read.

 

  1. Procedure when document is not admitted by the opposite party.– If, on the document being tendered, the opposite party objects to its being admitted in evidence two questions commonly arise: first, whether the document is authentic, or, in other words, is that which the party tendering it represents it to be; and second, whether, supposing it to be authentic, it is legally admissible in evidence as against the party who is sought to be affected by it. The latter question, in general, is matter of argument only; but the first must, as a rule, be supported by such testimony as the party can adduce.

 

  1. Legal objection as to admissibility.– All legal objections as to the admissibility of a document should, as far as possible, be promptly disposed of, and the Court should carefully note the objection raised and the decision thereon.

The Court is also bound to consider, suo moto, whether any document sought to be proved is relevant and whether there is any legal objection to its admissibility. There are certain classes of documents which are wholly inadmissible in evidence for certain purposes, owing to defects such as want of registration, etc., (see e.g., Section 49 of the Registration Act). There are others in which the defect can be cured, e.g., by payment of penalty in the case of certain unstamped or insufficiently stamped documents.

 

  1. Mode of proof.– As regards the mode of proof the provisions of the [Qanun-e-Shahadat, 1984 (X of 1984)] should be carefully borne in mind. The general rule is that document should be proved by primary evidence, i.e. the document itself should be produced in original and proved. If secondary evidence is permitted, the Court should see that the conditions under which such evidence can be led in, exist.

 

Old documents.– If an old document is sought to be proved under Section 90, the Court should satisfy itself by every reasonable means that it comes from proper custody.

 

When copies instead of original may be put in.– Under the Bankers’ Books  the books of Banks, in certain circumstances, and a similar privilege is extended under Section 26 of the Co-operative Societies Act, [1925], to entries in books of Societies registered under that Act, and the entries in the account prescribed under [subsection (1) of Section 14 of the Punjab Money Lenders Ordinance, 1960 (XXIV of 1960)].

 

  1. Proof of signature or attestation.– There are certain points which the Courts should bear in mind, when the signature or attestation of a document is sought to be proved.

Before a witness is allowed to identify a document, he should ordinarily be made, by proper questioning, to state the grounds of his knowledge with regard to it. For instance, if he is about to speak to the act of signature, he should first be made to explain concisely the occurrences which led to his being present when the document was signed, and if he is about to recognise a signature on the strength of his knowledge of the supposed signer’s handwriting, he should first be made to state the mode in which this knowledge was acquired. This should be done by the party who seeks to prove the document. It is the duty of the Court, in the event of a witness professing ability to recognise or identify hand writing, always to take care that his capacity to do so is thus tested, unless the opposite party admits it.

 

  1. Plans.– In all cases in which a plan of the property is produced by either of the parties or is required from it by the Court and is not admitted by the opposite party, it must be properly proved by—

 

(a)           examination of the person who prepared it, and by requiring him to certify it as correct and to sign it, or

 

(b)           by affidavits or examination of the parties and witnesses.

It is further open to the Court to issue a commission at the cost of the parties or either of them to any competent person to prepare a correct plan and to examine the person so appointed in order to explain and prove it.

 

  1. Endorsements on documents admitted in evidence.– Every document “admitted in evidence”, must be endorsed and signed or initialled by the Judge in the manner required by Order XIII, Rule 4, and marked with an Exhibit number. Documents produced by the plaintiff may be conveniently marked as Ex. P. 1, Ex. P. 2, etc., while those produced by the defendant as Ex. D. 1, D. 2, D. 3, etc. To ensure strict compliance with the provisions of Order XIII, Rule 4, [*****] each Civil Court has been supplied with a rubber stamp in the following form:

 

 

SUIT No. OF (Year)

Title (Plaintiff) versus (Defendant)

Produced by

On the …. day of

Nature of document

Stamp duty paid Rs. . . . Ps. . . . is (is not)
correct.

Admitted as Exhibit No. ________

on the ____________day of __________19

Judge.

 

 

The entries in the above form should be filled in at the time when the document is admitted in evidence under the signature of the Judge. This precaution is necessary to prevent any substitution or tampering with the document. Details as to the nature of the document and the stamp duty paid upon it are required to be entered in order that Courts may not neglect the duties imposed on them by Section 33 of the Stamp Act, 1899. District Judges should see that all Courts subordinate to them are supplied with these stamps.

 

The above rule also applies to documents produced during the course of an enquiry made on remand by an Appellate Court.

The endorsement and stamp will show that the document is proved. It is to be remembered that the word “proved” used in the context here means “that Judicial evidence has been led about it” and does not imply “proof” in an absolute sense.

 

  1. Endorsements on documents not admitted in evidence.– Documents which are not admitted in evidence must similarly be endorsed before their return with the particulars specified in Order XIII, Rule 6, together with a statement of their being rejected and the endorsement must be signed or initialled by the Judge.

 

  1. Documents to be placed in strong cover.– Documents which are admitted in evidence should be placed in strong covers – one cover being used for documents produced by the plaintiff and the other for those produced by the defendant.

 

  1. Consequences of not properly admitting documents.– Owing to the neglect of the foregoing direction as regards endorsing and stamping of documents it is often impossible to say what papers on the file constitute the true record; copies of extracts from public or private records or accounts, referred to in the judgment as admitted in evidence, are often found to be not “proved” according to law, and sometimes altogether absent.

 

  1. Revision of record before writing judgment to see that only admitted document are on the record. Duty of Appellate Court to see that this has been done.– It is the duty of the Court, before proceeding to judgment under Order XX, Rule 1, of the Code of Civil Procedure, finally to revise the record which is to form the basis of its judgment, and to see that it and contains all that has been formally admitted in evidence and nothing else. Any papers still found with the file, which have not been admitted in evidence, should be returned to the parties.

Appellate Courts should examine the records of cases coming before them on appeal with a view to satisfying themselves that subordinate Courts have complied with the provisions of the law and instructions of the High Court on the subject, and should take serious notice of the matter when it appears that any Court has failed to do so.

 

  1. Extracts or copies of settlement record and Riwaj-i-Am to be placed on record.– It frequently happens that although the wajib-ul-arz or riwaj-i-am of a village or other revenue record is referred to by the parties and by the Court itself as affording most important evidence, there is no certified extract or copy with the record of the entries relied on. When there is a copy, it is often incomplete or so carelessly written as to be un-intelligible. It becomes necessary to call for the originals thus causing damage to the records themselves, and delay and inconvenience to the parties to the suit. It is the duty of Appellate Courts to see that the Courts subordinate to them have proper extracts or copies of relevant entries in Settlement records made, verified and placed on the record.

 

  1. Production of public records.– No application for the production of a Court record should be entertained unless it is supported by an affidavit and the Court is satisfied that the production of the original record is necessary (Order XIII, Rule 10). The same principle may well be applied to other public records also. In the case of revenue records, the procedure laid down in Chapter 9 of this Volume “Special Kanungo” should be followed.

 

It should be borne in mind that mere production of a record does not make the documents therein admissible in evidence. The documents must be proved at the trial according to law.

 

Requisitions for records of Courts in other provinces should be submitted through the Registrar, Lahore High Court, Lahore.

 

Care should, however, be taken in not treating the applications for production of public records and documents too lightly. Such documents are liable to be lost or mutilated in the course of transmission and a good deal of time of the clerks is wasted in checking these records in order to see whether they are complete according to the index. Original records or documents should not, therefore, be sent for, unless the Court is fully satisfied that the production of a certified copy will not serve the purpose.

 

Attention is drawn to rule 5, Order XIII, Civil Procedure Code, under which it is open to the Court to require copy of an entry of a public record to be furnished by one or the other party to the case. In the absence of special reasons which should be recorded in writing, Court should not detain the original of a public document but should return it after a copy has been furnished.

 

  1. Return of documents.– Documents admitted in evidence can be returned to the persons producing them, subject to the provisions of Order XIII, Rule 9 (as amended by the High Court by Notification No. 563-G, dated the 24th November, 1927). If an application is made for return of a document produced in evidence before the expiry of the period for filing an appeal or before the disposal of the appeal (if one is filed) care should be taken to require a certified copy to be placed on the record, and to take an undertaking for the production of the original, if required.

In pending cases, application for return of documents should be made to the Court where the case is pending.

 

In decided cases, the officer-in-charge of the Record Room should return the documents without consulting the original Court only when the applicant delivers a certified copy to be substituted for the original and undertakes to produce the original, if required to do so.

 

In all other cases, application shall be made to the original Court or its successor. If the Court considers that the document may, under Order XIII, Rule 9, be returned, it shall record an order accordingly.

 

The application should then be presented to the officer in-charge of the Record room who will pass an order for return of the document.

 

 

 

PART H

 

HEARING OF SUITS, ADJOURNMENTS, EXAMINATION OF WITNESSES, ETC

 

  1. List of Witnesses.– Notice of the day of trial, reasonably sufficient to enable the parties to attend with their witnesses, should be given before hand. It is the business of the parties to take all reasonable steps to have their witnesses present in Court on the day fixed. The Court should, on application and deposit of process-fees, issue the requisite summonses as soon as possible so as to secure their attendance on the date fixed for hearing.

 

[Not later than seven days after the settlement of issues the parties shall submit to the Court a certificate of readiness to produce evidence, alongwith a list of witnesses whom they propose to call to give evidence or to produce documents] and no party who has begun to call his witnesses shall be entitled to obtain processes to enforce the attendance of any witness against whom process has not been previously issued or to produce any witness not named in the list without an order of the Court made in writing and stating the reasons therefor (Order XVI, Rule 1). [*****]

 

  1. Statement of case.– The trial should begin by the party having the right to begin (Order XVIII, Rule 1 of the Code) stating his case, and giving the substance of the facts which he proposes to establish by his evidence. The case thus stated ought to be reasonably in accord with the party’s pleadings, because no litigant can be allowed to make at the trial a case materially and substantially different from that which he has placed on record, and which his adversary is prepared to meet. The procedure laid down in the aforesaid rule is often neglected by Courts, but it is highly useful and should be invariably followed.

 

  1. Examination-in-Chief.– In the examination of witnesses questions ought not to be put in a leading form, nor in such a form as to induce a witness, other than an expert, to state a conclusion of his reasoning, an impression of fact, or a matter of belief. The question should be directed to elicit from him facts which he actually saw, heard or perceived within the meaning of [Article 71 of the Qanun-e-Shahadat, 1984 (X of 1984).] The questions should be simple, should be put one by one and should be framed so as to elicit from the witness, as nearly as may be in chronological order, all the material facts to which he can speak of his own personal knowledge. A general request to a witness to tell what he knows, or to state the facts of the case should, as a rule, not be allowed because it gives an opening for a prepared story. Where the party calling witnesses is not aided by Counsel, and is unable himself to properly examine his witnesses he may be asked to suggest questions and the examination may be conducted by the Court.

 

  1. Cross-examination.– When the examination-in-chief is concluded the opposite side should be allowed to cross-examine the witness, or, if unable to do so, to suggest questions to be put by the Court. In cross-examination leading questions are permissible.

 

  1. Re-examination.– Then should follow, if necessary, re-examination for the purpose of enabling the witness to explain answers which he may have imperfectly given on cross-examination, and to add such further facts as may be admissible for the purpose.

 

  1. How far should Court interfere in the conduct of examination.– When the examination, cross examination and re-examination are conducted by the parties or by their pleaders, the Presiding Officer ought not, as a general rule, to interfere, except when necessary, e.g., for the purpose of causing questions to be put in a clear and proper shape of checking improper questions, and of making the witness give precise answers. At the end, however, if these have been reasonably well-conducted he ought to know fairly well the exact position of the witness with regard to the material facts of the case; and he should then put any questions to the witness that he thinks necessary. The examination, cross-examination, re-examination and examination by the Court (if any ) should be indicated by marginal notes on the record.

 

  1. Examination of witnesses called by Court.– The examination of witness called by the Court under the provisions of order XVI, Rules 7 and 14, of the Code, should always be conducted by the Court itself; and after such examination, if the parties to the suit desire it, the witnesses may be cross-examined by the parties. Upon the close of the cross-examination, the re-examination of such witnesses, if necessary, should be conducted by the Court in the manner above stated.

 

  1. Deposition should be read over.– The deposition of each witness should be read over to him in open Court and corrected, if necessary, [and signed] by the Judge as soon as his evidence has been finished (Order XVIII, Rule 5).

 

  1. Mode of recording evidence.– In all appealable cases the evidence shall be taken by or in the presence of the Judge or under his personal directions and supervision. If he does not write the evidence himself he shall (in all cases whether appealable or non-appealable) as the examination of each witness proceeds make in his own hand a memorandum of the evidence. He shall sign this memorandum and file it with the record. Should he be unable to do so he shall cause the reason of his inability to be recorded, and the memorandum to be taken down in writing from his dictation in open Court.

 

  1. Arguments.– When the party having the right to begin has stated his case and the witnesses adduced by him have been examined, cross-examined and re-examined, and all the documents tendered by him have been either received in evidence or refused, it then devolves upon each of the opposing parties, who have distinct cases, to state their respective cases in succession, should they desire to do so. After all of them have done so, or have declined to exercise the right, the evidence, whether oral or documentary, adduced by each in order, should be dealt with precisely as in the case of the first party; and on its termination and after they have, if they so desire, addressed the Court generally on the whole case the first party should be allowed to comment in reply upon his opponent’s evidence.

 

The provisions of Order 18, Rules 2 and 3 as to hearing arguments should be strictly followed. The practice prevailing in some Courts of hearing three speeches in every case after the close of evidence of both parties, first by plaintiff, then by defendant and then a reply by plaintiff is irregular.

 

  1. Rebuttal evidence.– If, however, the case of an opposing party is such as to introduce into the trial, matter which is foreign to and outside the case of the first party and the evidence adduced by him, then the latter must be allowed, if he so desires, to rebut this by additional evidence, and his opponent must be allowed to speak upon it by way of reply before the first party himself makes his own reply. But this is not to be understood as entitling the first party to ask for an adjournment for that purpose. He is bound to be prepared with such rebutting evidence, and an adjournment should only be allowed by the Court for good and sufficient reasons, costs being, if necessary, allowed to the opposite party.

 

  1. Examination of parties as witnesses.– The vicious practice of each party summoning his opponent as a witness merely with the design that counsel for each party gets a chance of cross-examining his client, obtains in many of the Muffasil Courts. This practice has been strongly condemned by their Lordships of the Privy Council and must cease (see I.L.R., XXXI, ALL. 116 at page 122). On the other hand, when the parties are personally acquainted with any facts which they have to prove, they are expected to go into the witness-box and stand the test of cross-examination by the opposite party. The failure of a party to go into the witness-box in such circumstances is liable to be regarded, in the absence of some satisfactory explanation, as throwing grave doubt on the bona fides of his case. (see 105, I.C., 220(P.C.).

 

  1. Note about closing of evidence.– It is frequently urged in appeals that a party has had witnesses in attendance whom the lower Court has omitted to examine. It is often impossible to ascertain from the record whether this is the case, and it would be equally impossible to ascertain it by a remand. When the examination of the last witness produced in Court by a party is closed, he should be distinctly asked if he has any more witnesses to produce; and the question and reply should be noted on the record. If more witnesses are named, the Court should either examine them or record its reasons for not doing so. If either party states that he desires additional witnesses to be summoned, the Court should record the fact of the application and pass an order there-upon.

 

  1. Continuous hearing of evidence.– Judges should always endeavour to hear the evidence on the date fixed, as much expense and inconvenience is caused by postponements ordered on insufficient grounds before the witnesses in attendance have been heard. Under Order XVII, Rule 1 of the Code, when the hearing of the evidence has once begun the hearing of the suit should be continued from day to day until all the witnesses in attendance have been examined, unless the Court finds the adjournments of the hearing to be necessary for reasons to be recorded by the Judge with his own hand.

 

It should be noted that sub-rule (1) of Rule 1, of Order XVII as amended by this Court requires that when sufficient cause is not shown for an adjournment, the Court shall proceed with the suit forthwith.

 

  1. Adjournments for evidence.– It has been observed that a number of Courts grant an adjournment merely because the party at fault is prepared to pay the costs of adjournment. Subordinate Courts should bear in mind that the offer of payment of the costs of adjournment is not in itself a sufficient ground for adjournment. The provisions of Order XVII, Rule 3, also deserve notice in this connection. If a party to a suit to whom time has been granted for a specific purpose as contemplated by Order XVII, Rule 3, Civil Procedure Code, fails to perform the act or acts for which time was granted without any good cause the rule gives the Court discretion to proceed to decide the suit “forthwith” i.e., without granting any adjournment. In such cases a further adjournment should not ordinarily be granted, merely because offer is made for payment of costs. In some Courts it is apparently assumed that if such an adjournment is not granted the case will be remanded by an Appellate Court. There are, however, no valid grounds for this assumption. If the record makes it clear that a further adjournment has been refused because of the negligence of the party concerned, such refusal would not in itself justify an Appellate Court in remanding the case. An adjournment granted otherwise than on full and sufficient grounds is a favour and in civil suits favour can be shown to one party only at the expense of the other.

 

No hard and fast rule can, however, be laid down. Each case must be judged on its own merits.

 

  1. Adjournments for arguments.– The practice of adjourning a case for arguments after all the evidence has been given should, as a rule, not be followed except in long and complicated cases. But this observation does not extend to an adjournment, when reasonably necessary, for a reply on the whole case by the party who is entitled to such reply nor to an adjournment for argument on a question of law which may have arisen during the trial and may have been, for convenience sake, reserved for argument until after the taking of the evidence.

 

Whenever a case has to be adjourned for arguments it should be adjourned to the next day, or, if this is not possible, to a very near date.

 

  1. Memo of evidence should be legible.– The Judge’s memoranda of evidence should always be written in a legible manner; and if from any cause they have been illegibly or indistinctly recorded, copies should be made and placed with the record.

 

  1. Interlocutory orders and notes.– All orders made by the Court relative to change of parties, or adjournments, or bearing upon the course of the hearing of the suit other than depositions, orders deciding any issue and the final judgment, and notes of all material facts and occurrences which may have happened during the hearing of the suit, such as the presence of witnesses, etc. , must be carefully recorded from time to time, by the Presiding Officer in his own handwriting and be dated and appended to the record. Each “order”, or “note” should be clearly marked as such.

 

All interlocutory orders should be recorded separately at one place in chronological order and kept at the beginning of the English record or evidence.

 

 

 

PART J

 

DISMISSALS IN DEFAULT AND EX PARTE PROCEEDINGS

 

  1. General.– Order IX of the Code deals with the appearance of parties and the consequences of non-appearance.

 

  1. Default by parties.– Order IX, Rule 3, provides that when neither party appears when the suit is called on for hearing, the Court may make an order that the suit be dismissed.

 

  1. Default by defendants.–[(a) “Order IX rule 6 provides that if on the day fixed in the summons for the defendant to appear and answer, the plaintiff appears and the defendant does not appear and it is proved that the summons was duly served in sufficient time to enable the defendant to appear and answer on the day named in the summons, the Court may proceed to try the case ex parte and pass decree without recording evidence. As regards the requisite proof of service in such cases, Chapter 7, Vol. IV on “Service of Processes” may be referred to. The defendant, it will be observed, may apply under Order IX Rule 13 for an order to set aside the ex parte decree and if satisfied that the summons were not duly served or that he was prevented by any sufficient cause from appearing when the suit was called on for hearing the Court shall make an order setting aside the decree against him on such terms as to costs as it thinks fit and shall appoint a day for proceeding with the suit. However, no ex parte decree shall be set aside merely on the ground of an irregularity in the service of summons if the Court is satisfied, for reasons to be recorded, that the defendant had knowledge of the date of hearing in sufficient time to appear on that date and answer the claim. (See section 5, article 164 and 181 of Schedule I, Limitation Act.)]

 

(b)          Attention is drawn to Order IX, Rule 7, which lays down the procedure for setting aside ex parte proceedings when the hearing of the suit has been adjourned ex parte but no ex parte decree has been passed.

 

(c)           Attention is also drawn to Order XVII, Rule 2, which lays down the procedure when the parties or any of them fail to appear at the adjourned hearing.

 

  1. Default by plaintiff.– Order IX, Rule 8, lays down that if the defendant appears and the plaintiff does not appear when the suit is called on for hearing, the Court shall make an order dismissing the suit, unless the claim is admitted wholly or in part, in which case the claim shall be decreed only to the extent to which it is admitted.

 

  1. Hasty dismissal not advisable.– The above rules must be worked in a reasonable manner, otherwise they will result in a number of applications for setting aside orders passed in the absence of one or both parties. A litigant may have gone away for a few minutes to call his pleader or to refresh himself. It is impossible to expect a man to remain in constant attendance for the whole of the time during which the Court is sitting. (A convenient method is to lay aside a case when it is found that both parties are not present and to call it a second time later on in the day, when all other cases have been called and those in which parties are present have been disposed of, and though it is not desirable to lay down any hard and fast rule as applicable to all cases, the above course should ordinarily be followed. Occasionally when it is brought to the notice of the Court that both the parties to a case, which has been held over are in attendance, it may be found convenient to call up the case before all other cases have been disposed of.)

 

[When a suit or application is dismissed in default, the exact time of dismissal should be noted in the order by the Presiding Officer in his own hand. Where the defendant is absent in spite of service and the Court proceeds ex parte under Order IX Rule 6(1) (a) of the Code of Civil Procedure the Court may proceed ex parte but it has further to decide in exercise of its discretion whether it should pass the decree claimed against the defendant after evidence or without recording evidence and the discretion in this regard is to be exercised Judicially (PLD 1978 S.C. 89).]

 

  1. Hasty dismissal not advisable.– Some Judicial Officers are inclined to dismiss cases in default hastily in order to show an increased out-turn. This tendency must be strongly deprecated. No case should be dismissed without giving a party reasonable opportunity to appear as indicated above and if this is done, the number of successful applications for setting aside dismissals in default will be appreciably reduced. The same remarks apply to proceedings taken ex parte and applications to set aside ex parte orders. When a suit or application is dismissed in default, the exact time of dismissal should be noted in the order by the Presiding Officer in his own hand.

 

  1. Order of “Dakhil Daftar” is irregular.– There is a tendency for Presiding Officers of civil Courts to pass orders that cases should be “dakhil daftar”. This practice is incorrect. A Presiding Officer should invariably make it clear what the precise nature of the order is, i.e, whether the case is postponed or dismissed and the rule, if any, under which the order is passed should also be mentioned.

 

  1. Registration suits.– When a plaint is presented a suit is thereby instituted under Order IV, Rule 1, of the Code and the suit must forthwith be entered in the Register of Civil Suits (Civil Register No. 1) in accordance with Order IV, Rule 2.

 

  1. Procedure when the plaintiff is not present on the preliminary date.– It is customary, when a plaint is presented, to fix a short preliminary date in order to permit the examination of the plaint. On this preliminary date the plaintiff is expected to appear to receive notice of the date fixed for the hearing of the suit. It sometimes happens that the plaintiff does not appear on this date and several cases have come to the notice of the Judges in which Courts have forthwith dismissed the suit in default by orders purporting to be made under order IX.

 

This procedure is incorrect as it has been held that the preliminary date is not a date fixed for hearing and, therefore, the provisions of order IX do not apply. The correct procedure in such cases may be deduced from the Code and has been referred to in several rulings of the High Court. It is as follows:

(i)            If the plaint is in order and process fee for the summoning of the defendant has been filed with the plaint, the Court should issue summons to the defendant and a notice to the plaintiff to appear on the date for which the defendant is summoned. If on that date the plaintiff does not appear in spite of the service of the notice on him, the suit can be dismissed under Order IX, Rule 3 or Rule 8 of the Code, whichever is applicable.

 

(ii)           If the plaint is in order but process fee has not been filed with it, the Court should fix a date for the appearance of the defendant and issue notice to the plaintiff calling upon him to appear on that date and to deposit process fee by a specified date, so that the defendant may be summoned. If on the date fixed it is found that no summons has issued owing to non-payment of process fees, or that the summons could not be served owing to late payment of process fees, the suit can be dismissed under Order IX, Rule 2. If process fee has been paid as directed, the other provisions of Order IX will apply.

 

(ii-a)       The provisions of Section 5 of the Limitation Act 1908(IX of 1908) have been made applicable to applications under sub rule (i) of Rule 9 and sub rule (i) of Rule 13 of order IX C.P.C.

 

(iii)         If the plaint is not in order and the defects are such as to entail its rejection under Order VII, Rule 11, the Court should record an order rejecting it. If it is to be rejected for failure to pay Court fees, it will be necessary first to issue a notice calling on the plaintiff to make up the deficiency unless he has already been given time to do so (See also paragraph 7 of Chapter 1-C ante). In such cases the final order to be entered in Civil Register No. 1 is “plaint rejected”.

 

If the defects in the plaint are not such as to call for its rejection under Order VII, Rule 11, the Court should proceed in accordance with the procedure outlined in sub-clause (i) and (ii) above, the question of remedying the defects being taken up at the first hearing.

 

 

 

PART K

SPEEDY DISPOSAL OF CASES

 

  1. Cause-diary–. The speedy disposal of Court business is a matter which requires the earnest attention of every Judicial Officer. Delays of law are notorious in this country and tardy justice is often no better than injustice.

 

The proper despatch of Court work depends not merely on the ability of an officer, but also to a large extent on the personal attention paid by him to its adjustment and control. Amongst the important matters, which should receive his personal attention is the cause-diary. The practice of leaving the fixing of dates to the clerical staff, leads to abuses and results frequently in confusion of work. The fixing of an adequate cause list which can be got through without difficulty during the Court hours requires some intelligence and forethought, and unless the officer pays personal attention to the matter and fixes the list with due regard to the time likely to be taken over each case, there is risk of a considerable number of cases being postponed from time to time, with consequent delay in their disposal and inconvenience to the litigant public.

 

  1. Causes of delay in disposal of cases.– As a result of annual inspections, it has been found that the delay in the disposal of cases is mainly due to the following errors:-

(i)            Orders for the issue of notice to parties and summonses to witnesses are given without specifying the date by which process fees must be paid into Court. Two days should be the usual time allowed.

 

(ii)          On failure of service, orders for the issue of fresh process are given without ascertaining the cause of the failure of the service and fixing the responsibility therefor.

 

(iii)         Documents, instead of being accepted either with the plaint or at the first hearing, are accepted at every stage of the case.

 

(iv)          Applications for the issue of interrogatories, which should be accepted at the earliest stage of the case only, are accepted at a very late stage.

 

(v)           Witnesses, who are present in Court, are often sent away un-examined on all kinds of inadequate pretexts.

 

(vi)          Cases are not proceeded with from day to day and the evidence is taken in driblets.

 

(vii)        Adjournments are granted for the preparation of arguments at all stages even in the matter of interlocutory orders.

 

(viii)       Unnecessary long adjournments are granted when adjournments are unavoidable.

 

(ix)         Suits are dismissed or restored without adequate reasons.

 

(x)           Orders are written by the Reader instead of by the Presiding Officer.

 

(xi)         Personal attention is not paid to service of processes. The instructions given in Chapter 7-D, Volume IV, should be carefully observed.

(xii)        The adjournment on insufficient grounds in cases which have already become old.

 

(xiii)       Fixing a large number of cases for a particular day and then postponing some of them for want of time.

 

(xiv)       Delay in the disposal of appeal against preliminary decree etc.

 

The Presiding Officer should pay special attention to the above points and follow carefully the proper procedure and instructions issued by the High Court on the subject from time to time.

 

 

Of all the foregoing, the most serious causes of delay are errors (i) and (ii).

 

All orders of whatever nature which are passed after the admission of a plaint(except those of a purely routine character) should be written by the Presiding Officer himself.

 

A Court should not adjourn any case for more than three months. If for any reason the diary for the next three months is full, a request for the transfer of some cases to some other Court should be made to the District Judge.

 

Intermediate dates should be fixed to watch the return of files requisitioned from other Courts and provinces.

 

District Judges should, from time to time, examine the diaries of [Civil Judges] in their districts in order to see that too much work is not fixed for any day.

 

  1. Commissions and arbitrations.– Delays also occur frequently in cases in which a commission has been issued or reference made to arbitration. Courts should insist on submission of reports by the Commissioners or Arbitrators, as the case may be, within a reasonable time and should not grant adjournment without satisfying themselves that the Commissioners or Arbitrators are doing their duties and that sufficient cause has been shown for the grant of an adjournment. Parties and arbitrators should be made to understand that a reference to arbitration is liable to be cancelled if the award is not filed within time. It will be found useful to make a part of the Commissioner’s fees depend upon punctual submission of his report.

 

[4.           Adjournment caused by absence of the Judge or unexpected holiday.—

(1)           When a suit or proceedings is set down for a day, which is a holiday, the parties thereto shall appear in the Court on the next working day and the Court may either proceed with the suit on such day or fix some other day thereafter.

 

(2)           If the Presiding Officer is proceeding on leave, he before this departure or before finishing the work on the day preceding the day of his leave should himself fix fresh dates of hearing in his Peshi Register for the cases fixed for the day on which he will not be holding the Court. The Register should then be made over to the Reader of the Court, who shall hand over to the parties and witnesses slips of paper specifying the other dates fixed for proceeding with the suits or proceedings and signed by him. In the event of the death of the Presiding Officer or his suspension or temporary absence due to any cause, the District Judge may empower another Civil Judge to perform his duties and the ministerial officer shall place the files fixed for the said date before the Civil Judge so empowered by the District Judge in this behalf to perform the duties of the Judge in respect of such suit or proceedings.]

 

  1. Transfers.– Whenever cases are transferred from one Court to another, the instructions contained in Chapter 13 of this volume should be followed.

 

  1. Cases held up owing to records being in the appellate Court or pending decision of another case.– Efforts should be made to give priority to cases, for the decision of which other cases are held up. [Civil Judges] are authorised to bring to notice of appellate Courts cases where a suit has already been postponed for more than three months merely because the records happen to be with the appellate Court. The Presiding Officer of the appellate Court should then treat the appeals in which records have been sent for by the lower Courts as “urgent” and dispose of them as early as possible. Appellate Courts should also treat all appeals in which proceedings have been stayed in a lower Court as “urgent”.

 

  1. Interlocutory orders.– Applications for interlocutory orders, the admission of which will hold up the original proceedings, should be carefully scrutinised and promptly disposed of.

 

  1. Old cases and abstracts of order sheets.– The progress of old cases should be carefully watched. It is advisable for Judicial Officers to keep before them a list of all old cases – say pending over six months or a year – and take proper steps to expedite their disposal. In order to put a stop to bad cases of delay Courts are required to submit to the High Court abstracts of order sheets in cases pending over a year.

 

  1. Priority to certain cases.– Attention is invited to the instructions as regards the speedy disposal of cases in which Government servants, military officers, soldiers, etc. are involved or to which the state is a party. (See Chapters 6 and 8 of this volume)]

 

Cases under section 28 of the Sikh Gurdawars Act, 1925 should also receive priority and be disposed of as quickly as possible (Vide Circular Memo. No. 3823-G; dated the 20th May, 1927).

 

  1. Commercial Cases.– “Commercial Cases” should be disposed of as speedily as practicable. The term “Commercial Case” is taken to include cases arising out of the ordinary transactions of merchants, bankers and traders, amongst others those relating to the construction of mercantile documents, export or import of merchandise, affreightment, carriage of goods by land, insurance, banking and mercantile agency, and mercantile usage, and debts arising out of such transactions.

 

A plaintiff or appellant may apply at the preliminary hearing at which his plaint or appeal is admitted or by subsequent application before the final hearing thereof, to have his case classed as a “Commercial Case”, and the Court before which such application is made shall, if satisfied that the case is a Commercial case, as defined in the above paragraph, cause the appeal or plaint to be marked with the words “Commercial Case”.

 

All cases which have been marked as “Commercial Cases” under the preceding paragraph shall be brought to a hearing as early as may be practicable. Such cases shall be given priority on the day of hearing over other cases, except part heard cases, and shall, so far as possible be heard from day to day until they are finally decided.

 

  1. Commercial Cases.–(a) In order to expedite decision in Commercial Cases, questions of law involving such preliminary points as limitation, causes of action, etc., should be tried and disposed of as preliminary issues before issues dealing with the merits of the case are taken up.

(b)           The following form in which specimen entries are given be adopted for elucidation of the pleas at the first hearing:-

 

IN THE COURT OF ——————————

SUIT NO.                            OF (YEAR)

___________________________________________________ PLAINTIFF.

 

Versus

 

____________________________________________________ DEFENDANT.

 

Parties

 

Upon hearing the ——————- on both sides and upon reading the affidavit

 

Counsel

 

of ———————– filed herein, the following directions are given:-

Particulars—–Defendant in a week to give particulars of ———————–

Admission—–That the plaintiff is —————

Discovery—–Defendant in a week to produce —————

Interrogatories—–Plaintiff may interrogate as to —————

 

only: Interrogatories to be initialled by me.

 

Inspection of Documents—–Plaintiff undertakes to produce at the hearing

 

Inspection of property—–None.

 

Commissions—–None.

 

Examination of witnesses.—–To be examined on commission or otherwise, as the case may be.

 

  1. Compromises.– The hearing of a suit shall not be postponed on the plea that the parties wish to compromise or for the purpose of deciding whether there has been any compromise between the parties except as provided in Order XXIII, Rule 3, as amended by the High Court.

 

 

PART L — INCIDENTAL PROCEEDINGS

 

(a) Attachment before Judgment and temporary injunction

 

  1. Attachment or arrest before judgment.– If at the time of filing the plaint, or at any other stage of the suit, an application is made by the plaintiff, under Order XXXVIII of the Code, for the arrest of the defendant or for the attachment of his property before judgment, the Court should proceed to consider the application with reference to the provisions of the Code and the following remarks.

 

  1. Attachment or arrest before judgment.– Orders for arrest or attachment before judgment ought not to be made on insufficient grounds. The circumstances which justify a Court in passing an order of this nature are distinctly stated in Order XXXVIII of the Code of Civil Procedure. The Court should, in every such case, be satisfied (Order XXXVIII, Rules 1 and 5) that the defendant contemplates a fraudulent disposal or removal of his property, or that he has fraudulently quitted its jurisdiction, leaving property therein.

 

  1. Temporary injunction.– It has been noticed that temporary injunctions are frequently issued ex parte by subordinate Courts without realising fully their consequences. The following instructions in respect of such orders should, therefore, be ordinarily followed:-

 

(i)            All Courts shall deal critically with plaints and affidavits and, before suddenly interfering with the defendant behind his back, shall satisfy themselves that something has actually occurred, shortly before the application, to justify such interference.

 

(ii)          Court should use the rules in Order XXXIX, C.P.C. with great discrimination, and should not overlook the significance of the word “may” wherever it occurs. They should not treat the exception in Rule 3 as the normal procedure. They should appreciate that interlocutory injunctions should be granted ex parte only in very exceptional circumstances, unless the plaintiff can convince the Court that by no reasonable diligence could he have avoided the necessity of applying behind the defendant’s back.

 

(iii)         Such injunction, when granted, should be limited to a week or less, i.e., the minimum time, within which a defendant can come effectively before the Court, assuming that to get rid of the injunction, he will be prepared to use the greatest expedition possible. [It should be noted that under Rule 2A of Order 39, Code of Civil Procedure, an interim injunction passed in the absence of the defendant shall not ordinarily exceed fifteen days, provided that such injunction may be extended for failure of its service on the defendant when such failure is not attributable to the plaintiff or when the defendant seeks time for defence of application for injunction].

 

(iv)         The Court should take the greatest care to state exactly what the forbidden acts are and the plaint should not be merely copied out; and if only one or some of the acts, sought to be restrained, need be urgently restrained, the injunction should be confined to those and should not embrace all the acts to which the plaintiff can possibly object.

 

(v)          When the defendant appears and files his affidavit, the plaintiff should be given only a few days to answer it. The contested application should then be heard, as soon as possible, and if the Judge cannot dispose of it at once, should, for the term of the adjournment, which should be as short as possible, either grant an ad interim injunction or obtain an undertaking from the defendant not to do any acts complained against.

 

(vi)        The Court should not allow the injunction to be abused by common devices such as failure to produce some person before the Process-Server for identification of the defendant or to serve some proforma defendant or in any other similar way. It may be remembered that an order of injunction made under rules 1 or 2 after hearing the parties or after notice to the defendant shall cease to have effect on the expiration of six months unless extended by the High Court after hearing the parties again and for reasons to be recorded for such extension:

Provided that report of such extension shall be submitted to the High Court.

(vii)        The above instructions are not intended to restrict the discretion of the Courts, but every application for an ex part injunction should be very carefully considered in the light of these instructions and should not be granted unless sufficiently good grounds are made out.

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

(b) Death, Marriage or Insolvency of parties

 

  1. Death, Marriage or Insolvency of parties.– The procedure to be followed in the event of death, marriage or insolvency of parties is laid down in Order XXII, Code of Civil Procedure. It is to be noted that suits do not abate on the death of one of the several plaintiffs or the sole plaintiff or in case of death of one of the several defendants or sole defendant where the right to sue survives, the decree passed shall have the same force and effect as it had been pronounced before the death took place. Reference is also invited to the provision of Order VII rule 25 Code of Civil Procedure.

 

  1. Marriage of female party.– The marriage of a female plaintiff or defendant does not cause the suit to abate and the suit may be proceeded with and where the decree is against female defendant it may be executed against her alone. Where the husband is by law liable for the debts of his wife, the decree, may, with the permission of the Court, be executed against her husband also and, in case the decree is in favour of the wife execution of the decree may, with such permission, be issued, upon the application of the husband, where the husband is by law entitled to the subject-matter of the decree.

 

(c) Compromises

 

Compromises or adjustment of suits.—Where a Court is satisfied that a claim has been adjusted by any lawful agreement or compromise or the claim has been satisfied wholly or in part, the Court shall order such agreement, compromise or satisfaction to be recorded and shall pass the decree accordingly so far as it relates to the suit. The newly added proviso by this Court to rule 3 of Order XXIII C.P.C. further provides that the hearing of a suit shall proceed and no adjournment shall be granted for the purposes of deciding whether there has been any adjustment or satisfaction, unless the Court, for the reasons to be recorded in writing, thinks fit to grant such an adjournment and that the judgment in the suit shall not be announced until the question of adjustment or satisfaction has been decided.

 

It is further provided that, when an application is made by all the parties to the suit, either in writing or in open Court through their counsel, that they wish to compromise the suit, the Court may fix a date on which the parties or their counsel should appear and compromise be recorded, but shall proceed to hear those witnesses in the suit who are already in attendance unless, for any other reason to be recorded in writing, it considers it impossible or undesirable to do so. If, upon the date fixed, no compromise has been recorded, no further adjournment shall be granted for this purpose, unless the Court, for reasons to be recorded in writing, considers it highly probable that the suit will be compromised on or before the date to which it proposes to adjourn the hearing.

 

In cases where the compromise goes beyond the subject-matter of the suit, the directions given in 46 I.A. 240(244) and I.L.R. 47 Cal.485 (P.C.) should be followed in preparation of decrees.

 

When a minor is concerned, the Court should consider and record a finding as to whether the compromise or adjustment is for the benefit of the minor and pass an express order granting or refusing leave for the purpose, as it may think fit.

 

As to compromises in cases of minors, see Volume-I, Chapter 1-M(d).

 

As to forms of decrees based on compromises, see Chapter 11(B) paragraph 5.]

 

(d) Amendment and Review

 

Amendment and Review.—When a case is decided on the merits, the Court has no power to vary the judgment or decree, except by way of amendment under Sections 151 and 152 or by review under Order XLVII, C.P.C. The scope of amendment is very limited, being confined to clerical or arithmetical errors, accidental slips, &c. Review can be granted only on the grounds specified in Order XLVII. The words “any other sufficient cause” occurring in Rule 1 of Order XLVII have been held by their Lordships of the Privy Council to mean “a reason sufficient on grounds at least analogous to those specified immediately previously” (See I.L.R. III, Lah. 127–P.C.).

 

(e)  Inherent Powers under Section 151, C.P.C

 

Inherent Powers under Section 151, C.P.C.—The scope of Section 151 of the Code of Civil Procedure is frequently misunderstood and applications are made under that section, which do not properly fall within its purview. The section is widely worded to enable Courts to do justice in proper cases, but it cannot be used so as to override the express provisions of statute.]

 

 

 

PART M—–SPECIAL FEATURES OF CERTAIN CLASSES OF CASES

 

 

(a) Cases under Punjab Customary Law

 

1 to 6.    [Omitted]

 

(b)  Money Suits

 

  1. General–Money suits generally preponderate in the Courts of the Civil Judges of the lowest grade and some features of these suits deserve attention.

 

  1. Typical money suits—(a) The typical money suit in the Mufassil is one between a creditor and an illiterate debtor. The suit is generally based on a running account consisting of petty items in the account book of the former with balances struck from time to time, or an agreement recorded in it with regard to larger loans borrowed on occasions of marriage, etc., and occasionally on a bond. Allegations of fraud, want of consideration, & c., are frequently made in defence and owing to the ignorance of the debtor, on the one hand and the frequent absence of regular accounts on the other, the cases require careful sifting. The examination of the parties themselves under Order X Rule 2, Civil Procedure Code, before framing the issues is generally very useful (see Part F of this Chapter). When fraud, misrepresentation, undue influence, etc., are pleaded, the particulars thereof should be carefully elicited.

 

(b)          False entry–It should be noted that [section 18 of the Punjab Money Lenders Ordinance, 1960 (XXIV of 1960)], now provides a penalty in a suit for recovery of a loan for a false claim with respect to the principal amount advanced. The Court is empowered to disallow at its discretion, the whole or any part of the sum claimed by the plaintiff if it is satisfied that a false entry has been made to show the sum advanced as being in excess of that actually advanced plus such legitimate expenses as may have been incurred.

(c)           Punjab Regulation of Accounts Act, its scope and duty of Court.– Special attention is drawn to the provisions of the Punjab Money-Lenders Ordinance, 1960 (XXIV of 1960) and Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Ordinance 1960. Section 14 of the Punjab Money-Lenders Ordinance, 1960 imposes on the creditor an obligation to maintain and furnish regular accounts for each debtor separately in such manner as the Government may prescribe and also to supply each debtor every six months legible statement of accounts signed by the money-lender or his agent, any balance or amount that may be outstanding against such debtor on 30th of June or 31st of December in each year.

 

Section 15 of the Ordinance makes it obligatory for the Court in every suit or proceeding relating to a loan, to frame and decide an issue as to whether the creditor has complied with the obligation imposed by section 14 of the Ordinance about maintenance and furnishing of regular accounts. If the Court finds that the accounts have not been properly maintained as provided in the Ordinance in computing the amount of interest due upon the loan it may exclude every period for which the money-lender omitted duly to furnish the accounts as required by clause (b) of sub-section (1) of section 14.

 

It should be noted that the debtor is not bound to acknowledge or deny the correctness of the accounts furnished and his failure to protest cannot by itself amount to an admission (Section 14 Explanation).]

 

  1. Suits on bahi account, copy of the account.– When a suit is based on a bahi account, the account must be produced with the plaint. To avoid inconvenience to the plaintiff, he is allowed to file a copy, but the copy must be supported by an affidavit by the party producing it to the effect that it is a true copy or by a certificate on the copy that it is a full and true translation or transliteration of the original entry. No examination or comparison by any ministerial officer shall be required except by the special order of the Court. It should be noted, however, that although a copy is allowed to be filed, the original account must be produced (except when it is permissible to produce a certified copy, e.g., under the Bankers’ Books Evidence Act, 1891), later in the course of the trial when evidence is led in order to prove it.

 

  1. Presumption as to entries in account books.—(i) Entries in the books of account are relevant under [Article 48 of Qanun-e-Shahadat, 1984], provided the books are regularly kept and the books must, therefore, be shown to have been so kept if such entries are relied upon. Further, such entries are not, by themselves, sufficient to charge any person with liability and must, therefore, always be supported by evidence with reference to the correctness of the transaction recorded. There may be cases in which the Court may consider the plaintiff’s own sworn testimony on the point sufficient for the purpose, but the main point to remember is that the mere production of an account is not sufficient to prove it.

 

(ii)          Entries in the accounts prescribed by the Punjab Money- Lenders Ordinance, 1960 (XXIV of 1960), are deemed to be regularly kept in the course of business for the purposes of Qanun-e-Shahadat, 1984 and certified copies are admissible in evidence for any purpose in place of the original entries (Section 14(3) of the Ordinance). As to the method of certification for such copies a reference should be made to rule 29 of the Rules framed under the Ordinance.]

 

  1. Bonds and agreements distinguished–The essential difference between a bond and an agreement for payment of a debt is that the former is attested by at least one witness. The question whether a certain writing is a “bond” or an “agreement”, does not depend upon whether it is executed on stamped paper or otherwise, but upon its contents. Broadly speaking, if a person binds himself to pay a debt by the writing it amounts to an “agreement”, and if the writing is attested by one or more witnesses it is a “bond”.

 

  1. Stamps on Bonds and agreements– An “agreement” as well as a “bond” are liable to stamp duty under the [omitted] Stamp Act. If a writing, which is tantamount to an “agreement” or a “bond”, does not bear the necessary stamp duty, it is inadmissible in evidence unless the stamp duty and penalty are paid according to the provisions of Section 35 of the [omitted] Stamp Act, 1899, [*****] (For further instructions on the subject, see Volume IV, Chapter-4).

 

  1. Registration of bonds–Registration is not obligatory in the case of simple bonds creating no charge on any immovable property. As regards bonds creating such a charge, Section 17 of the [omitted] Registration Act should be consulted.

 

  1. Thumb-mark and signatures–When the thumb-mark or signature on a document is denied, it must be proved in the proper manner. As regards thumb-marks, the most convenient method is to obtain thumb-marks of the person concerned in Court, if possible, and send the same together with the disputed thumb-mark for comparison by an expert to the Finger Print Bureau at [Lahore]. The report of the expert must be supported by his testimony on oath or solemn affirmation. Such testimony can be conveniently obtained by issuing a commission for the purpose to the [Civil-Judge] at Lahore. (For further instructions on the subject, see Volume IV, Chapter 9). As regards proof of signatures, [Articles 59-61 of Qanun-e-Shahadat, 1984,] may be consulted and also Chapter 1-G of this Volume.

 

  1. Proof of consideration–When the execution of a document is admitted or proved and the document contains an admission as to payment of consideration, the onus will be shifted to the executant to prove absence of consideration, if he relies on any such plea. An exception to this has been made by section 12 of the Punjab Debtors Protection Act, II of 1936, which lays down that the burden of proving that any consideration, alleged to have been paid by a money-lender, actually passed shall be on him unless the consideration is acknowledged by a debtor in his own handwriting or has been endorsed by the Registering Officer acting under clause (c) of sub-section 1 of section 58 of the Registration Act, 1908, as having been paid in his presence. The definitions of “money-lender” and “loan” as given in the Act should be carefully noted.

 

  1. Costs and interest.– The instructions contained in Chapter 11-E about the “Award of costs” and in Chapter 11-F about the “Award of interest” should be noted carefully.

 

  1. Debt conciliation Boards.– The provisions of Sections 9, 13, 20, 21 and 25, of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act, 1934 (VII of 1934), should be carefully studied as the Act governs the relationship between debtors and creditors.

 

  1. Payment by debtors.– The provisions of Order XXI, Rule 1, Civil Procedure Code, relate only to payments made by a judgment debtor towards the satisfaction of a decree of Court.

 

It is now provided by [Section 3 of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Ordinance, 1960], that any person who owes money may, at any time, deposit in Court a sum of money in full or part payment to the creditor.

 

The Court, on receipt of any such deposit, has to give notice to the creditor and on his application, pay the sum to him. For form of notice see form No. 218, Volume VI-A, Part A-II.

 

  1. Payment by debtors.– When a deposit has been so made by the debtor interest ceases to run on the sum deposited.

 

  1. Rules as to deposits.– The Provincial Government had made the following Rules under section 32 of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act 1934. These Rules shall be deemed to continue in force in view of section 13 read with section 4 of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Ordinance, 1960.]

 

 

 

RULES

 

(1)           These rules may be called the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness (Deposit in Court) Rules, 1935, and shall apply to all deposits to be made under section 31 of the Act.

 

(2)           In these rules “the Act” means the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act, 1934.

 

(3)           Sums less than Rs. 1,000 may be deposited in any Civil Court having jurisdiction within the district in which the debtor resides:

 

Provided that where there is more than one such Court in the same town, the deposit shall be made in the Court exercising the highest pecuniary jurisdiction.

 

(4)           Sums of Rs.1,000 or over shall be deposited only in the Court of the Senior [Civil Judge] of the district in which the debtor resides.

 

(5)           Deposits may be made either by postal money order or by the debtor in person.

 

(6)           All sums deposited shall be accounted for and dealt with according to the ordinary rules for the time being in force in the Courts into which they are paid.

 

(7)           Notices under sub-section (2) of section 31 of the Act shall be served upon the creditor by registered letter acknowledgment due at the expense of the debtor.

 

[15.        Punjab Money Lender’s Ordinance, 1960.– According to section 10 of the Punjab Money-Lenders Ordinance, 1960 notwithstanding anything contained in any other enactment, a suit by money-lenders for recovery of a loan or an application for the execution of a decree relating to a loan shall be dismissed unless at the time of the institution of the suit or at the time of presentation of the application for execution of the decree, as the case may be, the money-lender –

 

(a)           holds an effective license granted under section 3; or

(b)          holds a certificate granted under section 7 specifying the loan in respect of which the suit is instituted or the decree in respect of which the application for execution is presented.]

 

(c)  Pre-emption suit

 

  1. Prevailing Law.– The law of pre-emption in the Punjab is now governed by the Punjab Pre-emption Act 1991 (IX of 1991) and in the interpretation and application of its provisions, the Courts are to seek guidance from the injunctions of the Holy Quran, Sunnah and Fiqh.

 

  1. Deposit of one third sale price.– In every pre-emption suit, the Court is bound to require the plaintiff to deposit one-third of the sale price mentioned in the sale deed or the mutation and if no sale price is mentioned therein, or the price so mentioned appears to be inflated one-third of the probable value of the property within such period as the Court may fix not exceeding thirty days from the date of the filing of the suit.

 

If the plaintiff fails to make the deposit within the specified time or such further time as the Court may allow within the maximum period prescribed by law or if the plaintiff withdraws the sum deposited, his suit must be dismissed. The sum so deposited shall be available for the discharge of costs.

 

  1. Court to enquire Suo Motto certain matters.– In every pre-emption suit, the Court should examine the plaint to ascertain that (a) the sale in dispute does not pertain to a property in respect of which right of pre-emption does not exist; (b) the plaint contains necessary averments as to making of the requisite talabs; (c) the plaint contains necessary averments as to Court fee payable under the law, and in any case where the Court fee payable is determined by the Court, the amount of Court fee payable and the date by which Court fee is to be paid and affixed, shall be specified; and (d) the plaint contains averment as to whether public notice of sale was given or not as required by section 31 of the Act. The plaint ordinarily should accompany a copy of the public notice.

 

  1. Investment of the security deposit.– The security i.e. one-third of the sale price deposited with the Court should be deposited in the State Bank or the National Bank of Pakistan under the head `12,00,000: Receipt from Civil Administration, 1230000 Law and Order Receipts; 1231000 Justice and 1231800 Others (75).]

 

(d) Suits by and against minors and

persons of unsound mind

 

  1. General.– The procedure to be followed in the case of suits by or against minors is laid down in the rules in Order XXXII of the Code of Civil Procedure. Attention is invited to the additions and alterations made in these rules by the High Court (vide Chapter 23 of this volume).

 

  1. Next friend and guardian ad litem defined.– A minor being legally incapable of acting for himself, the law requires that every suit by or against such a person should be conducted on his behalf by a person who has attained majority and is of sound mind. A person conducting a suit on behalf of a minor plaintiff is called his “next friend”, while a person defending it on his behalf is called a “guardian ad litem” for the purpose of the litigation.

 

  1. Permission to sue.– Any person as described above may institute a suit on behalf of a minor and no permission of the Court is necessary for the purpose.

 

  1. Procedure for appointment of guardian.– A “guardian ad litem” for a minor must be appointed by the Court and the trial of the suit cannot proceed until such an appointment is made.

To facilitate the appointment of a suitable guardian ad litem by the Court, Rule 3 of Order XXXII (as amended by the High Court) requires the plaintiff to file a list of relatives and other persons suitable for such appointments, accompanied by an affidavit to the effect that the persons named have no adverse interest in the matters in controversy in the suit and they are fit for appointment.

 

  1. Notice to minor and relatives, etc.– No order should be made appointing a guardian ad litem unless notice is issued to the guardian of the minor appointed or declared by a Court (if any), or where there is no such guardian, to the father or other natural guardian, or where there is no such guardian, to the person in whose care the minor is, and the objections of such persons (if any) are heard, [the Court may if it thinks fit, issue notice to the minor also.] A notice to the minor is not essential under the rules (as amended) and need not issue where the minor is a mere child incapable of understanding the proceedings or helping in the selection of a guardian.

 

  1. Choice of guardian, appointment of Court officers or pleaders, funds for defence and accounts to be kept. Scale of fees of pleader.– In appointing a guardian ad litem, the following order of preference shall be observed:-

 

(i)            If there is a guardian appointed or declared by a Court, he must be appointed unless the Court considers that it is for the welfare of the minor that some other person should be appointed. If any other person is appointed, the Court must record its reasons;

 

(ii)          in the absence of a guardian appointed or declared by a Court, a relative of the minor best suited for the appointment should be selected;

 

(iii)         in the absence of any such relative, one of the defendants should be appointed, if possible;

 

(iv)         and failing such a defendant a [*****] pleader may be appointed.

It should be remembered that no person can be appointed to act as a guardian ad litem without his consent. Consent may, however, be presumed unless it is expressly refused.

 

When a pleader is appointed to act as a guardian, the Court has power to direct the plaintiff or any other party to the suit to advance the necessary funds for the purposes of defense. A pleader should be required to maintain and produce accounts of the funds so provided and these should ultimately be recovered from such party as the Court may think it just to direct after the result of the suit.

 

[The Court may allow the pleader appointed to act as a guardian and the fee shall be as under :-

 

(i)            Rs.200/- in cases valued upto Rs.5000/-

(ii)          Rs.500/- in cases valued upto Rs.20,000/- and

(iii)         Rs.1000/- in cases of beyond that value.

 

  1. Rejection of plaint where minor is not represented.– The plaint may be “taken off the file” and all orders made may be set aside, if a minor is not properly represented and the person filing the plaint or obtaining the orders, whether a legal practitioner or not, may be liable to pay costs.

 

  1. Appointment of guardian enures of appeal and execution.-When a guardian ad litem is appointed by a Court the appointment enures for the whole of the litigation including appeals and execution proceedings arising out of the suit.

 

  1. Compromise and agreement.– No next friend or guardian ad litem can enter into any compromise or agreement with reference to the suit without the leave of the Court expressly recorded in the proceedings which should not be granted until the Court has applied its mind to the compromise or agreement in order to ascertain, as far as possible, that it is really for the benefit of the minor. If he does so, the compromise or agreement will be voidable at the instance of the minor.
  2. Rules relating to suits by or against minors apply mutatis mutandis to suits by or against persons of unsound mind.

 

(e) Suits by Paupers

 

  1. General. Attention is called to Order XXXIII of the Code, on the subject of suits by paupers and the steps which should be taken to protect the interests of Government in such cases.

 

  1. Examination of plaintiff, and evidence for admission notice to Government.– Before a pauper suit is admitted, the petitioner or his agent, when the applicant is allowed to appear by agent, should be examined regarding the merits of the claim and the property of the applicant. If it appears to the Court that the suit is not framed and presented in the manner prescribed by rules 2 and 3 of Order XXXIII, or that the applicant is not a pauper, or that he has fraudulently made away with any property within the two months preceding the presentation of the plaint, or that his allegations do not show a cause of action, or that he has entered into any agreement with reference to the subject-matter of the proposed suit under which any other person has obtained an interest in such subject-matter, the application must be rejected. If the Court sees no reason to refuse the application, it must fix a day (of which at least ten days’ previous notice must be given to the opposite party and to the Government Pleader on behalf of Government) for receiving such evidence as the applicant may adduce in proof of his pauperism, and for hearing any evidence which may be adduced in disproof thereof, and can only pass final orders on the application after hearing the evidence and arguments brought forward on the day so fixed.

 

  1. Dispaupering.– Under the provisions of Order XXXIII, Rule 9, of the Code of Civil Procedure, the Court may, under certain circumstances, order a plaintiff to be dispaupered.

 

  1. Copy of decree to be sent to Collector.– Order XXXIII, Rule 14, directs that where an order is made under Rules 10, 11 or 12, the Court shall forthwith forward a copy of the decree to the Collector.

Note:- The Deputy Commissioner of each district in the Punjab has been declared to be the “Government Pleader” for his district for purposes of Order XXXIII, Rule 6, Civil Procedure Code (Punjab Government Notification No. I.C., dated Ist. January, 1909).

 

(f)           Suits for Redemption and

Foreclosure of Mortgages.

 

  1. Notice to mortgagor, conditional sale in case of land not permitted–The law regulating the procedure in cases where the mortgagee, whose mortgage-deed also contains a provision for conditional sale, desires to foreclose the mortgage is often misunderstood. Regulation XVII of 1806 is still the law on the subject. It will be seen that, whatever the terms of conditional sale, the mortgagee cannot enforce them till he has, by summary petition to the Court caused notice to be served on the mortgagor to the effect that, if the latter does not pay the sum secured within one year, the mortgage will be held foreclosed. After the lapse of this year, and not till then, the mortgagee can sue for possession, as owner or, if in possession, to be declared owner in accordance with the terms of the mortgage.

 

The Court should also see whether section 9 (3) of the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900, applies to the case.

 

It should also be noted that according to section 10 of the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900, in any mortgage of “land” made after the commencement of the Act, any condition which is intended to operate by way of conditional sale, shall be null and void.

 

[Note:- See Bengal Regulation XVII of 1806 and Section 3 and Schedule of Punjab Laws Act, 1872 (V of 1872). Punjab Code Volume I.]

 

  1. Court competent to hear.– Only a District or Additional Judge can deal with applications under section 7 and 8 of Regulation XVII of 1806. The procedure prescribed in the Regulation should be very strictly observed as otherwise the notice may have no legal effect.
  2. Dismissal for default.– According to Order IX, Rule 9, of the Civil Procedure Code (as amended by the High Court), when a suit for redemption is dismissed in default under Order IX, Rule 8, the plaintiff is not precluded from bringing another suit for redemption of the mortgage.

 

  1. Summary Procedure for redemption.– The Punjab Redemption and Restitution of Mortgaged Lands Act, 1964 (XIX of 1964), provides a summary procedure for redemption of land through the Collector in the Province, but any party, aggrieved by the decision of the Collector, can institute a suit in a Civil Court to establish his right (see section 7 of that Act).]

 

  1. Jurisdictional value.– As to the value of the suit for purposes of jurisdiction see Chapter 3 of this volume.

 

(g) Suits for Declaratory Decrees

 

  1. Issue as to possession.– The proviso to section 42 of the Specific Relief Act, lays down that a declaratory decree cannot be passed in a case in which other relief than a mere declaration can be sought. Hence in a suit for a declaration of title to immovable property, where the defendant denies that the plaintiff was in possession of the property on the date of the suit, the Court should first of all decide this point. If the plaintiff is not found to be in possession of the property on the date of suit his suit must fail unless the plaint is amended.

 

  1. All issues to be framed.– These instructions are not to be taken to imply that the whole of the pleadings should not be exhausted and issues drawn on all points of conflict between the parties at the first hearing, but that, at the trial of the issues, the issue as to possession should be first tried and disposed of where this can be conveniently done.

 

(h) Suits for Accounts

 

  1. Account may be preferably taken after disposal of other points.– In suits for accounts the matter of account may either be taken up along with the other issues or after the other issues have been decided. The latter course would be found to be preferable in most cases.

 

  1. Filing of accounts and evidence.– The accounting party must file the account along with the written statement or at some other time as fixed by the Court. The account filed must be verified by an affidavit. The Court should allow reasonable time to the opposite party to examine the account and put in his objections, if any.

 

The Court should in such cases first take the evidence adduced in support of the statement filed by the accounting party, then that adduced by the opposing party in the same manner; and should finally, on consideration of the whole, determine, as nearly as possible, the true state of the account. The matter of account must, in short, be treated as a separate subject of trial, in a certain sense independent of the rest of the suit.

 

  1. Commission.– In intricate cases, however, Courts will find it convenient to issue a Commission to a suitable person for examining the accounts (vide Chapter 10 of this Volume, “Commissions and Letters of Request”).

 

(i) Procedure in “Hadd-Shikni Cases”

 

  1. Local Inquiry.– In “Hadd-Shikni” suits and other suits of boundary disputes of land, falling within the jurisdiction of a Civil Court, it is generally desirable that enquiry be made on the spot. This can usually be done in the following ways:-

 

(a)           by suggesting that one party or the other should apply to the Revenue Officer to fix the limits under section [117(1) of the Punjab Land Revenue Act 1967 (XVII of 1967]. Time for such purpose should be granted under Order XVII, Rule 3, of the Code of Civil Procedure;

(b)          by appointing a local commissioner, and

(c)           by the Court itself making a local enquiry.

  1. Enquiry by Revenue Officer.– An order of the Revenue Officer made under section 101 of the Land Revenue Act is not conclusive; but when his proceedings have been held in the presence of, or after notice, to the parties of the suit, and contain details of enquiry and of the method adopted in arriving at the result it would be a valuable piece of evidence. It may be noted that an Assistant Collector of the second grade can deal with cases in regard to boundaries which do not coincide with the limits of an estate.

 

  1. Appointment of Commissioner.– Similarly the report of the local commissioner should contain full details so that the Court may satisfactorily deal with the objections made against it.

No person other than a Revenue Officer (or retired Revenue Officer) not below the rank of a Field Kanungo should usually be appointed a local commissioner.

 

  1. Instructions for the guidance of commissioners.– On the motion of the Judges, the Financial commissioners have issued the following detailed instructions for the guidance of Revenue officials or Field Kanungos appointed as Local Commissioners in civil suits of this nature.

 

Financial Commissioner’s Instructions

 

(i)            If a boundary is in dispute, the Field Kanungo should relay it from the village map prepared at the last Settlement. If there is a map which has been made on the square system he should reconstruct the squares in which the disputed land lies. He should mark on the ground on the lines of the squares the places where the map shows that the disputed boundary intersected those lines, and then to find the position of points which do not fall on the lines of the squares. He should with his scale read on the map the position and distance of those points from a line of a square, and then with a chain and cross-staff mark out the position and distance of those points. Thus he can set out all the points and boundaries which are shown in the map. But if there is not a map on the square system available, he should then find three points on different sides of the place in dispute, as near to it as he can, and, if possible, not more than 200 kadams apart, which are shown in the map and which the parties admit to have been undisturbed. He will chain from one to another of these points and compare the result with the distance given by the scale applied to the map. If the distances, when thus compared, agree in all cases, he can then draw lines joining these three points in pencil on the map and draw perpendiculars with the scale from these lines to each of the points which it is required to lay out on the ground. He will then, lay them out with the cross-staff as before and test the work by seeing whether the distance from one of his marks to another is the same as in the map. If there is only a small dispute as to the boundary between two fields the greater part of which is undisturbed then such perpendiculars as may be required to points on the boundaries of these fields as shown in the field map can be set out from their diagonals, as in the field book and in the map, and curves made as shown in the map.

 

(ii)          In the report to be submitted by him, the Field Kanungo must explain in detail how he made his measurements. He should submit a copy of the relevant portion of the current Settlement field map of the village showing the fields, if any, with their dimensions (karu kan) of which he took measurements, situated between the points mentioned in instruction No. (i) above and the boundary in dispute. This is necessary to enable the Court to follow the method adopted and to check the Field Kanungo’s proceedings.

 

(iii)         If a question is raised as to the position of the disputed boundary according to the field map of the Settlement preceding the current Settlement, that also should be demarcated on the ground, so far as this may be possible, and also shown in the copy of the current field map to be submitted under instruction No. (ii).

 

(iv)         On the same copy should be shown also, the limits of existing actual possession.

 

(v)          The areas of the fields abutting on the boundary in dispute, as recorded at the time of the last Settlement and those arrived at as a result of the measurement on the spot should be mentioned in the Field Kanungo’s report with an explanation of the cause or causes of the increase or decrease, if any, discovered.

 

(vi)         When taking his measurements the Field Kanungo should explain to the parties what he is doing and should enquire from them whether they wish anything further to be done to elucidate the matter in dispute. At the end, he should record the statements of all the parties to the effect that they have seen and understood the measurements, that they have no objection to make to this (or if they have any objection he should record it together with his own opinion) and that they do not wish to have anything further done on the spot. It constantly happens that when the report comes before the Court, one or other party impugns the correctness of the measurements and asserts that one thing or another was left undone. This raises difficulties which the above procedure is designed to prevent.

 

(vii)        The above instructions should be followed by Revenue Officers or Field Kanungos whenever they are appointed by a Civil Court as Commissioners in suits involving disputed boundaries.

 

 

 

 

PART N—MISCELLANEOUS

NOTIFICATIONS ETC

 

General Remarks

 

  1. All references in Government Notifications to the Chief Court of the Punjab shall be construed as referring to the [Lahore High Court, Lahore].

 

  1. 2. All references in the Notifications to the Lieutenant Governor, Lieutenant-Governor in Council, Local Government and Governor in Council shall be construed as referring to Punjab Government.

 

  1. All references in the notifications to the Governor General of India in Council, Governor-General of India, Governor-General in Council, Governor-General, Government of India shall be construed as referring to [Federal] Government.

 

I — Court Language

 

  1. [(a) Urdu being the National Language as per Article 251 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973, shall be the language of the High Court, provided that English may be continued as the Language of the Court as well till further orders. (See also paragraph 1-A(a) of part A of Chapter 1 and paragraph 1 of part A of Chapter 4 of Volume V of High Court Rules and Orders.]

 

(b)          Urdu has been declared to be the language of all Courts subordinate to the High Court.

 

II—Powers under sections 91 and 92
of the Code of Civil Procedure

 

The powers conferred by Sections 91 and 92 of the Civil Procedure Code on the Advocate-General, may be exercised by all Deputy Commissioners in the Punjab. (Punjab Government Notification No. 1-E., dated the Ist January, 1909).

 

Notification No. 183-St., Revenue, dated the 27th April, 1935.

 

In exercise of the powers conferred by section 1 of the Transfer of Property Act, IV of 1882, as amended, the Governor-in-Council, is pleased to extend the provisions of sections 54, 107 and 123 of the said Act, with effect from the 6th May, 1935, to the following areas in the Punjab:-

 

(i)            All Municipalities; and

 

(ii)          All Notified Areas as declared and notified under section 241 of the Punjab Municipal Act, 1911.

 

[III.– Enforcement of Provisions of Transfer of Property Act, 1882, in the areas now forming Punjab.

 

(i)            Notification No. 766.79/1/70. LRI dated 23rd August, 1979 (Pb.Gaz.Ext. 10-09-1979). In exercise of the powers conferred by section 1 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (Act IV of 1882) the Governor of the Punjab is pleased to cancel former Government of Bahawalpur State’s Notification No.20, dated the 28th May, 1931, with immediate effect.

 

(ii)          Notification No. 3097-8/1511-LRI, dated 22nd November 1978 (Pb. Gaz. Ext. 6-12-1978). In exercise of powers conferred by section 1 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (Act IV of 1882) and in supersession of the Government of the Punjab Revenue Department Notification No.15246-74/2237-LRV, dated the 17th December, 1974, the Governor of the Punjab is pleased to extend the provisions of section 54, 59, 107, 118 and 123 of the said Act to the following areas in the Punjab :-

 

(i)            All Municipalities; and

 

(ii)          All Notified Areas as declared and notified under Section 241 of the Punjab Municipal Act, 1911.

 

(iii)         Notification No.183-St., Revenue, dated the 27th April 1935.

 

In exercise of the powers conferred by section 1 of the Transfer of Property Act 1882 (IV of 1882), as amended the Governor-in-council, is pleased to extend the provisions of Section 54, 107 and 123 of the said Act, with effect from the 6th May, 1935, to the following areas in the Punjab:-

 

(i)            All Municipalities; and

 

(ii)          All Notified Areas as declared and notified under section 241 of the Punjab Municipal Act, 1911.

(See Pb. Gaz. EXT, dated 30-12-1974)

 

(iv)         Notification No. 15246-74/2237-LRV dated 30.12.74. In exercise of the powers conferred by section 1 of the Transfer of Property Act, 1882 (Act IV of 1882) and in partial modification of Notification No. 183-ST, dated the 27th April, 1935, and Notification No.20, dated the 28th May, 1931, issued by the Government of the Punjab and the Government of the former State of Bahawalpur respectively, the Governor of the Punjab is pleased to extend the provisions of Sections 54, 59,107, 118 and 123 of the said Act to the whole of the Province of the Punjab.]

 

 

 

PART O

 

PUNJAB ACTS

 

  1. The attention of all Courts is drawn to the series of Acts of the Punjab Assembly which lay down and define the relations between agriculturist-debtors and their creditors. The provisions of these Acts are very important, and in suits in which the classes named are involved, Courts should invariably refer to these Acts and scrupulously follow their Provisions.

 

[The Acts in question are:-

 

(1)           The Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act, 1934(VII of 1934).

 

(2)           The Punjab Agricultural Produce Markets Ordinance 1978 (XXIII of 1978).

 

(3)           The Punjab Alienation of Land Act, 1950.

 

(4)           The Punjab Money-Lenders’ Ordinance, 1960 (XIV of 1960).

 

(5)           The Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Ordinance, 1960 (XV of 1960).

 

(6)           The Punjab Redemption and Restitution of Mortgaged Lands Act, 1964 (XIX of 1964).]

 

  1. Circulars may be issued from time to time by the High Court, inviting the attention of Presiding Officers, to particular provisions of these Acts, which appear to be overlooked, or to errors of procedure, which are found to be common. Presiding Officers should familiarize themselves with these circulars, and avoid the errors therein pointed out.

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER  2

JURISDICTION — CIVIL COURTS

 

PART A—JURISDICTION OF CIVIL COURTS

 

  1. General.– The first question which a Court in which a suit or other proceeding is instituted has to consider, is whether it has jurisdiction to hear and decide it. The general rule is that a Civil Court can take cognizance of all suits of a civil nature unless its cognizance is expressly or impliedly barred (vide Section 9, Code of Civil Procedure, 1908). But this general rule is subject to various limitations depending upon the nature, value, or the locality of the subject-matter, the residence of the defendant and so forth.

 

  1. Jurisdiction of civil Courts excluded.– The jurisdiction of the Civil Courts is excluded in certain matters, e.g.:-

 

[(a)         By section 77 of the Punjab Tenancy Act 1887 and section 172 of the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967 in cases mentioned therein.

 

(b)           Cases falling under section 3 read with Part 1(b) of the Schedule to the Conciliation of Courts Ordinance, 1961 (XLIV of 1961).]

 

(c)           In certain cases triable by the Sikh Gurdwaras Tribunal, see sections 29, 31, 32, 36, 37 and 39 of the Punjab Sikh Gurdwaras Act, 1925 (VIII of 1925).

 

(d)          Suits mentioned in sections 21 and 25 of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act in cases triable by debt Conciliation Boards set up under the Act.

 

(e)           Suits mentioned in section 4 of the pensions Act of 1871 in matters relating to rights in pensions or grants of money or land revenue.

 

(f)           Suits for liability of officers acting judicially for official acts done in good faith and of officers executing warrants and orders, vide section 1 of Act XVIII of 1850 (Protection of Judicial Officers).

 

(g)          to enforce any right under a mortgage declared extinguished under the Punjab Redemption and Restitution of Mortgaged Lands Act 1964 (XIX of 1964), or to question the validity of any proceedings under that Act.

 

  1. Pecuniary limits.– The District Judge, [Additional District Judge and Civil Judge] of the Ist class have jurisdiction to hear suits without any limit as to their value. In the case of [Civil Judges] of a lower class, however, jurisdiction depends, inter alia, on the value of the suit. The value of a suit for purposes of jurisdiction has to be calculated in accordance with the provisions of the Suits Valuation Act and the rules thereunder (see Chapter 3, Valuation of Suits).

 

  1. Special Jurisdiction.– Under certain enactments, Courts of Civil Judges have no jurisdiction at all to take cognizance of proceedings under those enactments e.g. the Companies Ordinance, 1984 (XLVII of 1984), the Banking Companies Recovery of Loan Ordinance (XIX of 1979), the West Pakistan Family Courts Act, (XXXV of 1964) etc. There are proceedings under certain other enactments of which Civil Judges can take cognizance if specifically empowered in that behalf e.g. section 4-A of the Guardians and Wards Act, 1890, read with section 25 of the West Pakistan Family Courts Act, 1964.

 

  1. Other matters governing jurisdiction.– Section 15 of the Civil Procedure Code lays down that every suit must be instituted in the Court of the lowest grade having jurisdiction to hear it. Sections 16 and 17 of the Code, lay down certain restrictions as to the locality where certain suits affecting immovable property can be instituted. Section 20 lays down a further restriction that a suit must be instituted where one or more of the defendants actually and voluntarily reside or carry on business or personally work for gain or where the cause of action arises, “wholly or in part”. [*****]

 

  1. Jurisdiction barred by Small Cause Courts Act.– When a Court of Small Causes under the Provincial Small Cause Courts Act, 1887, has jurisdiction in any locality, ordinary Civil Courts cannot try suits, which are cognizable by that Court, unless it is expressly provided otherwise by the aforesaid Act or any other enactment (see Section 16 of the Provincial Small Cause Courts Act, 1887).

 

  1. Jurisdiction where defendant sets up a claim which is beyond pecuniary Jurisdiction of the Court.– It happens sometimes that in a suit, which is prima facie, within the jurisdiction of a Court, a defendant sets up a claim which is beyond its pecuniary jurisdiction. In such cases, if the Court finds, after enquiry into the case, that a decree must be passed on payment of a sum exceeding its pecuniary jurisdiction, it should stay further proceedings and report the case to the District Judge for transfer to a competent Court. [*****].

 

  1. Jurisdiction in respect of persons amenable to Military Law.– For the jurisdiction of Civil Courts in respect of persons amenable to Military Law, see Chapter 6, regarding suits by or against persons in Military Service.

 

 

 

PART B—JURISDICTION OF CIVIL AND REVENUE COURTS

 

  1. Matter raised in defence which is solely triable by Revenue Court.– If in a suit which, as framed, is within jurisdiction of a Civil Court, a defendant raises a plea with respect to a matter which can be taken cognizance of only by a Revenue Court, the procedure laid down in the proviso to sub-section (3) of Section 77 of the Punjab Tenancy Act 1887 must be followed and the plaint returned for presentation to the Collector.

 

  1. Suit for correction of entries in Revenue records.– A civil suit will not lie for the correction of an entry in a Record of Rights, or [Periodical] Record, but any person, considering himself aggrieved as to any right of which he is in possession by such an entry, may institute a suit for a declaration of his right under Chapter VI of the Specific Relief Act, 1877. Where the relief sought in a plaint of this nature is not correctly worded, the plaint should be returned for amendment. [section 53 of the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967,] should be referred to on this subject.

 

  1. Question of title arising in land partition proceedings before Revenue Officers.– A Civil Court can only entertain a suit relating to a dispute as to title in revenue-assessed land arising in partition proceedings, when a Revenue Officer declines to determine the question himself as though he were a civil Court and refuses to proceed to partition until the question is determined by a competent Court. The plaint should, therefore, refer to the order of the Revenue Officer made under [Section 141, sub-section (1) of the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967,] and the Civil Court should satisfy itself that an order giving it jurisdiction has been so made. A copy of such order should accompany the plaint.

 

  1. Reference to Civil Court by Revenue Court.– Section 98 of the Punjab Tenancy Act, 1887, contains a provision empowering a Revenue Court to refer any party to a Civil Court for settlement of any question which the Revenue Court considers proper for decision by a Civil Court. Such reference must be by an order in writing, and such order must have the previous sanction of the Controlling Revenue Court, if any.

 

  1. Reference to High Court in cases of doubt as to jurisdiction of Civil or Revenue Court.– Provision has been made for the disposal by reference to the High Court of cases in which doubts may arise as to whether the Civil or Revenue Courts have jurisdiction, and for the registration in the proper Court of decrees passed under a misapprehension as to jurisdiction by either a Revenue or a Civil Court. These provisions will be found in Sections 99 and 100 of the Punjab Tenancy Act. The rules under this head will be found in chapter 15, References to the High Court.

 

  1. Succession to occupancy holding.– Suits relating to succession to occupancy holdings, under Section 59 of the Punjab Tenancy Act, 1887 lie in the civil Courts.

 

  1. Hadd-Shikni cases.– Hadd-Shikni cases are triable by Civil Courts. [section 172 sub-section 2(1) of Punjab Land Revenue Act of 1967] does not apply to such cases. That section merely means that a Civil Court is not competent to question the decision of a Revenue Officer as to the delimitation for the purposes of the [Punjab Land Revenue Act 1967], of land which is occupied as the site of a town or village and is not assessed to land-revenue.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. 9. Suits in which the plaintiff in the plaint asks for redemption of the property mortgaged or for foreclosure of the mortgage.

 

Value– (a) For the purposes of the Court-fees Act, 1870,–as fixed by section 7 (ix) of that Act.

 

 
  (b) For the purpose of the Suit Valuation Act, 1887, and the Punjab Civil Courts Ordinance, 1962,–the amount of the principal and interest calculated on the terms of the mortgage at the date of the institution of the suit.

 

 

 

 

  1. Suits in which the plaintiff asks for cancellation of a decree for money or other property having a money value, or other document securing money or other property having such value,–

 

Value– (a) For the purposes of the Court-fees, Act, 1870,–as determined by that Act.

 

 
  (b) For the purposes of the Suits Valuation Act, 1887, and the Punjab Courts Act, 1918,–according to the value of the subject-matter of the suit, and such value shall be deemed to be–

 

 

 

 

(i)          If the whole decree or other document is sought to be cancelled, the amount or the value of the property for which the decree was passed or the other document executed;

 

(ii)           If a part of the decree or other document is sought to be cancelled, such part of the amount or value of the property.

 

10-A.      Plaint or Memorandum of appeal for recovery of compensation or damages under the Fatal Accidents Act, 1855–

 

Value– (a) for the purposes of Court-fee Act, 1870, as fixed by Schedule II Article 18 as amended;

 

 
  (b) For the purposes of Suit Valuation Act, 1887, and the Punjab Civil Courts Ordinance, 1962, the amount claimed.

 

 

 

 

  1. The foregoing rules are subject to the following explanations:-

(i)            the terms “plaint” includes an amended as well as original plaint.

 

(ii)           a suit falling within any of the above descriptions is not excluded therefrom merely by reason of the plaint seeking other relief in addition to that described in any of the foregoing rules.

 

Note:- These rules came into force on the 2nd January 1943.

High Court Notification No. 363-R/XXX-3, dated the 2nd December, 1942.

(C. S. 17/XXX-3, dated the 23rd December 1942).

 

Court Decisions

Rule 11 comes into only if plaintiff asks for relief of cancellation of decree for money or other property having money value. P L D 1967 Lah. 75

 

 

 

 

 

ls.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 11

 

JUDGMENT AND DECREES

 

(For Execution of Decrees, see Chapter 12)

 

PART A—-PREPARATION AND DELIVERY OF JUDGMENTS

 

[1.           Early pronouncement advisable.–(a) On completion of evidence, the Court shall fix a date, not exceeding fifteen days, for hearing of arguments of parties, and the trial shall be over after such hearing.

 

(b)          When the trial in Court is over the judge should proceed at once or as soon as possible to the consideration of his judgment. It is essentially necessary that he should do so while the demeanour of the witnesses and their individual characteristics are fresh in his memory. In any case pronouncement of judgment should not be delayed beyond a period of thirty days. He should bear in mind that his first duty is to arrive at a conscientious conclusion as to the true state of those facts of the case about which the parties are not agreed. The oral and documentary evidence adduced upon each issue should be carefully reviewed and considered in the judgment.]

 

  1. Directions re: judgments.–In the preparation and delivery of judgment the attention of the Civil Courts is drawn to the following directions:–

 

(1)           The judgment should be written either in the language of the Court, or in English.

 

(2)           When a judgment is not written by the Presiding Officer with his hand, every page of such judgment shall be signed by him.

 

(3)           It should be pronounced in open Court after it has been written and signed.

(4)           It should be dated and signed in open Court at the time of being pronounced and when once signed shall not afterwards be added or added to, save as provided by section 152, C.P.C. or on review.

 

(5)           If it is the judgment of any Court other than a Court of Small Causes, it should contain a concise statement of the case; the points for determination, the decision thereon and the reasons for such decision.

 

(6)           If it is the judgment of a Court of Small Causes, it should contain the points for determination and the decision thereupon.

 

(7)           It should contain the direction of the Court as to costs.

 

  1. Reference to evidence.–Some Judicial Officers make a practice of prefacing judgments with a memorandum of the substance of the evidence, given by each witness examined which has to be referred to. This practice is irregular, when the memorandum is in addition to that made under Order XVIII, rule 8, of the Code of Civil Procedure. All that the law requires is a concise statement of the case and not a reproduction of the evidence. The judgment should, however, be complete in itself as regards the requirements of Order XX, rule 4, of the Code, and should set forth the grounds of decision as concisely as is consistent with the introduction of all important matters. It may be necessary, in particular cases, to refer to, and give a summary of, the statements of a witness or witnesses; but, if so, such summary should be incorporated in the reasons given for the decision of the Court on the issue to which it relates. When it is necessary to refer to the evidence of a witness in the course of a judgment, the reference should be by name as well as the number of the witness.

 

  1. Postponement.–Instances have occurred of judgments not being written until a considerable time after final arguments in a case have been heard. This practice is open to grave objection, and in any case in which judgment is not written and pronounced within 14 days from the date on which arguments were heard, a written explanation of the delay must be furnished by the subordinate Court concerned to the District Judge. This is not meant to encourage a practice of reserving judgments; on the contrary, judgments should ordinarily be written as soon as arguments have been heard. It is only in the exceptional case where the Court has to consider many rulings and cannot conveniently give judgment at once, that there is any justification for judgment being reserved.

 

  1. Certificate of postponement.–The subordinate Courts should append to their monthly and quarterly statements, a certificate to the effect that judgments have been pronounced in all cases, within a month of the hearing of the final arguments. Explanation should be given as regards any judgments not delivered within such period.

 

[6.           Procedure when Judge gives over charge before pronouncing judgment.–Every District Judge or Civil Judge proceeding on leave or transfer, must before making over the charge, sign a certificate that he has written judgments in all cases in which he has heard arguments. Should an officer be forced to lay down his charge suddenly, he shall, nevertheless write the judgments in such cases, and send them for pronouncement to his successor].

 

  1. Persons employed for dictation of judgments.–Subordinate Courts should note that judgments are to be dictated only to persons employed for that express purpose or employed as copyists or candidates.

 

  1. Not to be written in Court before disposal of cause list.–The practice of writing up judgments during the Court hours in the early part of the day is to be deprecated. Judgments may be written after the day’s cause list has been completed.

 

  1. Language.–Presiding Officers of Civil Courts, who are well acquainted with the English language, should write their judgments in English in appealable cases. When a Civil Judge writes his judgment in English, the decree should also be framed in the same language.

 

  1. Translation in Urdu.–Whenever the judgment is written in the English language, and any of the parties to the suit or appeal, or, if they were represented by counsel their counsel are not acquainted with that language, the judgment must, if any of the parties so require, and unless it is the judgment of a Court of Small Causes, be translated into Urdu. The High Court has not thought it advisable to issue instructions as to when the judgment of a Subordinate Court shall be translated by the Presiding Officer and when other agency may be employed, as this is a matter which can be best settled by each District Judge for the Courts subordinate to him. District Judges are, however, requested to issue definite instructions on the subject. When the translation is not made by the Presiding Officer, he should always satisfy himself that it is correct.

 

  1. Information of cancellation of registered instrument to be sent to registering officer.–It should be remembered that section 39 of the Specific Relief Act, 1877, requires that, when any registered instrument has been adjudged void or voidable, and the Court orders it to be delivered up and cancelled, the Court shall send a copy of its decree to the officer in whose office the instrument was registered with a view to such officer noting the fact of cancellation in his books.

 

  1. Pronouncing judgment after death of a party.–In Order XXII, rule 6, it is provided that, if any party to a suit dies between the conclusion of the hearing and the pronouncing of the judgment, such judgment may be pronounced, notwithstanding the death, and shall have the same force and effect as if it had been pronounced before the death took place.

 

  1. Judgment not legibly written.–Judgments (when not type-written) should always be written in a clear and legible hand. If they are not so written, such a copy should be made and placed on the record.

 

  1. Civil powers to be disclosed in the record, judgment and decree.–Every Judicial Officer hearing or deciding a civil suit, proceeding or appeal, is responsible that the record and the final order of judgment and the decree in such civil suit, proceeding or appeal, shall disclose the civil powers which such officer exercised in hearing or deciding such suit, proceeding or appeal.

 

[15.        Civil Powers.–The powers above referred to are the following:-

 

(a)           Civil Judge, third class.

(b)          Civil Judge, second class.

(c)           Civil Judge, first class.

(d)          Civil Judge invested with appellate powers under section 18(3) of the Punjab Civil Courts Ordinance, 1962 (II of 1962).

(e)           Civil Judge invested with powers of a Court of Small Cause.

(f)            Judge, Small Cause Court.]

 

  1. [Omitted]

 

[17.        Appellate powers.–[Section 18(3) of the Punjab Civil Courts Ordinance, 1962 (II of 1962) empowers the High Court to direct by Notification that the appeals lying to the District Judge from all or any of the decrees or orders passed in any original suit by any Civil Judge shall be referred to such other Civil Judge as may be mentioned in the Notification and the appeals shall thereupon be preferred accordingly and the Court of such Civil Judge shall be deemed to be the District Court for the purposes of all appeals so preferred.

By High Court Notification No.170-Gaz/XXI.C.6, dated 16.5.1935, the then Senior Subordinate Judges of First Class of 22 Districts of the then Punjab exercising jurisdiction within respective Civil Districts were invested with the powers to hear appeals lying in the District Courts from decrees or orders passed by any Subordinate Judge in a small cause of the valuation not exceeding Rs.500/- and in an un-classed suit of the valuation not exceeding Rs.100/-. The district of Dera Ghazi Khan was excluded from the said notification vide Notification No.53-Gaz/XXI.C.6 dated 26.2.1940. The district of Dera Ghazi Khan was again included in the said Notification vide Notification No.78-Gaz/XXI.C.6 dated 5.4.1966. The Senior Civil Judges of the districts of Bahawalpur, Bahawalnagar, and Rahim Yar Khan were invested with the same appellate powers vide Notification No.138-Gaz/XXI.C.6 dated 30.7.1963.]

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

PART B —-PREPARATION OF DECREES

 

  1. Points to be borne in mind.– The decree should be framed by the Judge with the most careful attention. It must agree with the judgment, and be not only complete in itself but also precise and definite in its terms. It should specify clearly and distinctly the nature and extent of the relief granted, and what each party, affected by it, is ordered to do or to forbear from doing. Every declaration of right made by it must be concise, yet accurate; every injunction, simple and plain.

 

  1. Directions.– The following directions relate to the preparation of decrees:-

 

(i)           Date for delivery of possession of land.– In decrees for possession of agricultural land, it should be stated whether possession is to be given at once, or after the removal of any crop that may be standing on the land at the time, when the decree is executed, or on or after any specified date.

 

(ii)          Appellate decrees.– In Appellate Courts, the language used in filling in the decretal order, shall conform to the action recognised by the law, and shall direct that the decree of the lower Courts be either “affirmed,” “varied,” “set aside” or “reversed.” In each case in which a decree is affirmed the terms thereof shall be recited, so as to make the appellate decretal order complete in itself. In varying a decree, the relief granted, in lieu of that originally granted shall be fully and accurately set out. Where a decree is reversed on appeal, the consequential relief granted to the successful party shall similarly be stated. Every decretal order shall be so worded as to be capable of execution without reference to any other document, and so as to create no difficulty of interpretation.

 

  1. Preliminary decrees.– Under section 2 of the Code of Civil Procedure a decree may be either “preliminary” or “final”. A preliminary decree should be based on a preliminary judgment.

 

  1. Mesne profits.– In cases where mesne profits are asked for in the plaint, the question as to the amount thereof (if any) which should be paid to the plaintiff, in respect to the period of dispossession before and up to the date of filing the plaint, must be determined at the hearing of the suit, and decree must specify clearly the portion of this amount which each defendant is to pay, either severally or jointly with others, to the plaintiff (Order XX, Rule 12).

 

  1. Decree in case of compromise.– (1) When a decree is to be passed on the basis of a compromise, the Court should order the terms of the compromise to be recorded in accordance with the provisions of Order XXIII, rule 3, Civil Procedure Code, and then pass a decree in accordance with the terms. When, however, the compromise goes beyond the subject-matter of the suit, a decree can be passed only in so far as it relates to the suit. As regards the proper form of decree in the latter class of cases, the directions of their lordships of the Privy Council in ‘Hemant Kumari Devi versus Midnapur Zamindari Company’ (46 I.A. 240 and 244 I.L.R. 18 Cal. 485) should be followed.

 

(2)           Compromise by minors.– When any of the parties to the case are minors, care should be taken to see whether the compromise is to their benefit and record a finding to that effect if the compromise is sanctioned and made the basis of a decree.

  1. Addition or substitution of Parties.– When any parties are added or substituted in the course of the suit, care should be taken to see that their names are properly shown in the decree-sheet.

 

  1. Decrees in certain cases.– As regards the proper form of decree in certain classes of suits, the provisions of Order XX and Order XXIV, Civil Procedure Code, should be consulted.

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

  1. Powers of Court to be set forth.– Every decree must set forth the powers of the officer deciding the suit.

 

  1. Pauper suits.– In suits by `paupers,’ when an order is passed under rules 10, 11 or 12 of Order XXXIII, a copy of the decree should be forthwith forwarded to the Collector.

 

  1. [Omitted]

 

 

 

PART C—-DECREES IN PRE-EMPTION CASES

 

 

  1. Decrees should be prepared immediately and specify the date of payment.– Decree sheets in pre-emption suits should be prepared on the date on which the decree is passed. The decree should specify the date (it should not be a date on which the Court would be closed) by or on which the payment of pre-emption money is to be made.

It is the duty of the decree-holder to secure a copy of the decree and comply with its conditions.

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

  1. Contents of decree.– The provisions of Order XX, Rule 14, Code of Civil Procedure, relating to the contents of the decree in a pre-emption suit, should be carefully studied. Sub-rule (2) relating to the adjudication of rival claims to pre-emption is new and requires special attention.

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

 

PART D—- DECREES CONTRAVENING THE PROVISIONS OF THE PUNJAB LAND ALIENATION ACT

 

  1. Copy to be sent to Collector.–Under section 21-A of the Punjab Land Alienation Act, every Civil Court, which passes a decree or order involving (1) the permanent alienation of his land by a member of an agricultural tribe or (2) the mortgage by a member of an agricultural tribe of his land, when the mortgagee is not a member of the same tribe or of a tribe in the same group, is required to send to the Deputy Commissioner a copy of such decree or order.

 

[1-A. Notification No.657-R dated 3rd April, 1953, has almost removed the distinction between an “agriculturist” and “non-agriculturist”. The notification reads as under:-

 

No.657-R dated 3rd April, 1953. In exercise of the powers conferred by section 4 of the Punjab Alienation of Lands Act, 1900, as amended, and in supersession of all the notifications of the Punjab Government now in force in this behalf, the Governor of the Punjab is pleased to determine that for the purpose of the said Act, there shall be the following groups of Agricultural Tribes in the Punjab:

 

(1)           All persons holding land as landlord or tenant or ordinarily residing anywhere in the Punjab except the Mianwali and Bhakkar Tehsils of the Mianwali and Bhakkar Districts respectively, the Kot Adu and Layyah Tehsils of the Muzaffargarh and Layyah District, Khushab Tehsil of the Shahpur District, shall be deemed to be a group of agricultural tribes.

 

(2)           All persons holding land as landlord or tenant or ordinarily residing in the Mianwali and Bahakkar Tehsils of the Mianwali and Bhakkar Districts on the date of this notification shall be deemed to be a group of agricultural tribes.

(3)           All persons holding as landlord or tenant or ordinarily residing in the Kot Adu and Layyah Tehsils of the Muzaffargarh and Layyah Districts on the date of this Notification shall be deemed to be a group of agricultural tribes; and

 

(4)           All persons holding land as landlord or tenant or ordinarily residing in the Khushab Tehsil of Shahpur District on the date of this notification shall be deemed to be a group of agricultural tribes.]

 

 

 

PART E —- AWARD OF COSTS IN CIVIL SUITS

 

  1. General rule.–The general rule as to the award of costs in civil suits is that costs follow the event of the action; that is , the costs of the successful party are to be paid by the party who is unsuccessful.

 

  1. When costs may be disallowed.–A wide discretion, however, is given to the Court to grant or withhold or apportion costs as it thinks fit. This discretion is to be exercised judiciously, e.g.,:-

 

Costs or a portion thereof may be disallowed to a successful party and he may even be liable to be burdened with costs in the following cases

 

(a)           Where a party has without just cause resorted to litigation.

 

(b)          Where a party has raised an unsuccessful plea or answer to a plea (such as fraud, limitation, minority, etc.) without sufficient grounds.

 

(c)           in cases mentioned in Order XXIV, rule 4, C.P.C. when a defendant deposits money in satisfaction of the claim.

 

(d)          Whenever the demand, whether of debt or damages or property claimed, is excessive or is only successful to a small extent.

 

(e)           In cases where notice to admit facts or documents has not been given (See Chapter I-F, paragraph 13 of this volume).

 

When notice to admit documents or facts has been given under Order XII, rules 2 and 4 of the Code of Civil Procedure to a party and it has withheld its admission without sufficient cause it must bear the costs incurred by the other party in proving the documents or facts whatever the result of the suit may be.

 

  1. When costs shall be disallowed.–Costs shall be disallowed-

 

(a)           in a suit or proceeding relating to a loan where the Court finds that the creditor has failed to regularly record and maintain an account as required by section 3 (1) (a) of the Punjab Regulation of Accounts Act, 1930. (See section 4 of the Act);

 

(b)          when a creditor sues for recovery of a debt in respect of which a certificate has been granted by the Debt Conciliation Board—-(vide section 20 (2) of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act of 1934); and

 

(c)           as against a minor or a person of unsound mind, where such a person has not been represented by a next friend or guardian. (Order XXXII, rules 2, 5 (2) and 15 of the Civil Procedure Code.) In such cases pleaders may under certain circumstances be made personally liable for costs.

 

  1. Reasons for disallowing costs to be recorded.–Whenever the Court orders that costs shall not follow the event, it must record its reasons. (Section 35 (2), Civil Procedure Code).

 

  1. Costs of applications.–In disposing of applications made under the Civil Procedure Code the Court may award costs at once to either party or may postpone its consideration to a later stage.

 

  1. Expenses included in costs.–The Code of Civil Procedure is silent as to what expenses are to be considered, as included in the term “costs.” Such expenses ordinarily fall under the following heads:-

 

(a)           Court- fee stamps on all necessary petitions.

 

(b)          Process-fees.

 

(c)           Expenses of proving and filing copies of necessary documents.

 

(d)          Pleaders’s fees.

 

(e)           Charges incurred in procuring the attendance of witnesses, whether such witnesses were summoned through the Court or not.

 

(f)           Expenses of Arbitrators and Commissioners.

 

Pleader’s fees are regulated by the rules contained in Chapter 16 of this Volume–“Legal Practitioners.”

 

Note:- Charges incurred on inspection of records (for one inspection only may be included in costs).

 

[7.           Compensatory costs for false or vexatious claims or pleas.–The provision of section 35-A, Civil Procedure Code, 1908, is to be applied with utmost care and discrimination. The Court must satisfy itself and record in writing its reasons that there are definite grounds for believing that the claim or plea is false or vexatious to the knowledge of the party by whom it has been put forward. Mere failure to prove the pleas or claims is not sufficient.

 

Under the powers conferred by sub-section (2) of section 35-A, Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, the High Court has directed that the amount, which any Court or class of Courts is empowered to award as costs by way of compensation, shall be limited as follows:-

 

(a)           Court of Civil Judges 3rd Class- Rs.1000/-

 

(b)          Court of Civil Judge 2nd Class- Rs.2500/-

 

(c)           Court of Civil Judge First Class shall be guided by the provision of sub-section(2) of section 35-A of the Code.]

 

 

 

PART F—-AWARD OF INTEREST IN CIVIL SUITS

 

  1. [Provision in Act XXVIII of 1855.– The law relating to interest should be carefully studied, particularly the following enactments:-

 

(a)           Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Ordinance, 1960 (XV of 1960);

 

(b)           Punjab Money-lenders Ordinance, 1960 (XXIV of 1960);

 

(c)           Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 [sections 34, 34-A, 34-B and 35(3)];

 

(d)          The Contract Act, 1872 (IX of 1872). (section 74);

 

(e)           The Punjab Usurious Loans Ordinance, 1959 (XVIII of 1959)].

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

  1. Future interest.– Section 34 of the Code of Civil Procedure enacts that where and in so far as a suit is for a sum of money due to the plaintiff, the Court may, in the decree, order interest at such rate as the Court deems reasonable to be paid on the principal sum adjudged, from the date of the suit to the date of the decree, in addition to any interest adjudged on such principal sum for any period prior to the institution of the suit; with further interest on the aggregate sum so adjudged from the date of the decree to the date of payment. It will be observed that by this section, a discretion is given in respect of two periods of time; viz., from the date of the suit to the date of the decree, and from the date of the decree to the date of payment.

 

[3-A.      Where the Court is of the opinion that a suit was instituted with intent to avoid the payment of any public dues payable by the plaintiff or on his behalf, the Court may, while dismissing such suit, make an order for payment of interest on such public dues at the rate of two percent per annum above the prevailing bank rate.

 

3-B.        Where the Court is of the opinion that the recovery of any public dues from the plaintiff was unjustified, the Court may, while disposing of the suit, make an order for payment of interest on the amount recovered at the rate of two per cent, per annum, above the prevailing bank rate.]

 

  1. Interest on costs.– Section 35(3) of the Code of Civil Procedure also empowers the Court to give interest on costs at any rate not exceeding six per centum per annum.

 

  1. Future interest.– In awarding interest subsequent to the date of the decree, the Courts, in the exercise of the discretion, which the law has conferred, should not ordinarily award a rate of interest approaching in amount that which may be obtainable in common dealings by persons who have not the security of a decree of Court to enforce payment. No inducement should be given to decree-holders to allow their decrees to remain unexecuted. The practice of the High Court, in ordinary cases, is not to award interest after decree at a higher rate than six per centum per annum

 

  1. Penal interest.– The plea is often raised that the “interest” claimed is “penal”. Courts should be careful to distinguish between high or excessive interest and “penal” interest. The mere fact that the rate of interest is high or that compound interest is charged is, by itself, no justification under the Contract Act for its reduction unless some other ground such as coercion, undue influence, etc, is established (see 101 and 124 P.R. 1918, P.C.). There is no definition of “Penalty” given in the Contract Act but its nature is indicated in section 74 of that Act. It would appear from that section that if a sum is named in a contract as the amount to be paid in the event of a breach of the contract or where there is any other stipulation in the contract making a person liable for an extra sum (e.g., in the shape of interest), for which he would not have been otherwise liable, the stipulation is to be considered penal. According to section 74 of the Contract Act, in such cases, the person entitled to claim advantage of the penal clause can recover only such reasonable compensation not exceeding the penalty, as the Court may think it fit to award, and cannot legally enforce the payment of the “Penalty” as such.

 

  1. Penal interest.– The question, whether a particular stipulation is or is not “Penal” is to be determined by the Court on the facts of each case. It has been held generally that a stipulation, which imposes a higher rate of interest in the event of a breach of the contract with retrospective effect from the date of contract, is “Penal” (e.f. 99 P.R. 1894).

 

  1. Effect of Usurious Loans Ordinance.– [The Punjab Usurious Loans Ordinance, 1959,] gives wider powers to Courts to interfere on equitable grounds in order to do justice between the parties when it is found that inter alia the transaction was, as between the parties thereto, substantially unfair (vide section 4 of the Act). In such cases the Act empowers the Court to re-open past transactions and relieve the debtor from liability in respect of excessive interest, etc. Attention is invited in this connection to I.L.R. VIII Lah. 205. The provisions of the Ordinance should be carefully studied and used in proper cases coming within its purview.

 

[9.          Changes made by Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Ordinance.– The Court can grant relief in any suit to which the Punjab Usurious Loans Ordinance, 1959, applies where the interest is excessive or the transaction, as between the parties, was substantially unfair. The Court, according to the wording of section 4 of the Punjab Usurious Loans Ordinance, 1959 shall exercise all or any of the powers specified therein. The Ordinance further prescribes the maximum rate of interest beyond which the Court shall deem interest to be excessive.

 

The maximum limit—

 

(a)           for secured loans, shall be –

 

(i)            7.5% per annum simple interest, or

 

(ii)          more than two per cent over the bank rate,

whichever is higher at the time of taking the loan; and

 

(b)          for unsecured loans, shall be—

 

12.5% per annum simple interest.]

 

  1. Rule of Damdupat.– Except in the case of a loan advanced by a registered Bank or by a company the rule of Damdupat has now been made applicable to the Punjab by section 30 of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act, 1934, in suits brought against a “debtor” as defined in section 7 of the Act.

 

(a)           If the loan was borrowed after the commencement of this Act, the Court cannot pass a decree for a sum larger than twice the amount advanced as principal.

 

(b)          If the loan was contracted before, the Court cannot grant a decree for a sum larger than twice the amount which the Court finds to have been due at the commencement of the Act.

[10-A.                    Non-applicability of provisions of rule 10.– (1) The provisions contained in paragraph 10 are not applicable to the loans advanced by any bank which is a scheduled Bank as defined by State Bank of Pakistan or any banking company registered under Companies Ordinance, 1984, or any co-operative society duly Registered under any law for the time being in force or credit institution to be notified by the Government in this behalf.

 

(2)           No Court can pass or execute a decree or give effect to an award in respect of debt for a larger sum than twice the amount of the sum found by the Court to have been actually advanced less any amount already received by the creditor. (See section 3 of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Ordinance, 1960)].

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

  1. Interest disallowed if accounts not maintained.– If the Court finds, that the accounts have not been maintained as prescribed, it must disallow the whole or a portion of the interest found due as it thinks fit, and also disallow costs.

 

  1. Interest disallowed if accounts not furnished.– If the accounts have been maintained but not furnished to the debtor as prescribed, the Court must disallow interest for the whole period for which the creditor failed to furnish the accounts unless the creditor actually furnished the accounts after the time prescribed and can satisfy the Court that he had some sufficient cause for not furnishing them earlier.

 

[(See Section 15 of the Punjab Money Lenders Ordinance, 1960 (XXIV of 1960)].

 

  1. Interest permissible in case of certificate by Debt Conciliation Board.– It should also be noted that where any creditor sues in a Civil Court for the recovery of debt in respect of which a Debt Conciliation Board had granted a certificate under section 20 (1) of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act, 1934, the Court cannot allow any costs or interest after the date of certification in excess of simple interest at six per centum per annum on the amount due on the date of such certificate.

 

  1. [Omitted.]

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 12

 

EXECUTION OF DECREES

 

PART A – GENERAL

 

  1. [References.– The law relating to execution of decree is to be found in section 36 to 56, 58, 60 to 74, 82 and 135 and Order XXI of the Code of Civil Procedure as amended by the Lahore High Court (vide Chapter 22 of this Volume). These provisions should be carefully studied and strictly followed. The changes introduced by the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act 1934 (VII of 1934), the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Ordinance, 1960 (XV of 1960) and the Punjab Debtors Protection Act, 1936 (II of 1936) also require careful consideration.]

 

  1. Special day to be reserved for execution work.– Execution of decrees should receive the same attention from the Courts as original civil work and should be methodically and regularly dealt with, as promptly as possible. Where parties have to be heard or evidence recorded in the course of execution proceedings, notice should be given, processes issued and dates fixed as in the case of original suits. As a rule one day during the week should be reserved for execution work so as to ensure proper attention being paid to it; sometimes two days are necessary. District Judges are responsible for seeing that proper arrangements are made for execution work by all Courts subordinate to them.

 

  1. All orders to be recorded by the Judge in his own hand.– All orders passed in execution proceedings shall be carefully and distinctly put on record, and, with the exception of purely formal orders, — which, however, must be signed by the Presiding Officer of the Court, — shall be recorded by the presiding Judge with his own hand.

 

  1. Distribution of execution work by District Judges.– District Judges should record standing orders regulating the distribution of applications for the execution of decrees among the Courts subordinate to them, providing for the disposal of cases in which decrees were passed by officers who have ceased to be attached to the district, and for carrying on the execution proceedings already pending before such officers at the time of their ceasing to be employed therein. In framing such orders, every Court should be required, as far as possible, to execute all decrees passed by itself; but, where this is not possible and it is necessary to send the decree to another Court for execution, care should be taken to see that the decree is not in excess of that Court’s limits of pecuniary jurisdiction as an Original Court, as by section 39 (2) Code of Civil Procedure the pecuniary jurisdiction of a Court in execution proceedings is limited to the amount of its pecuniary jurisdiction as an Original Court.

 

  1. District Judge to see that execution work is not neglected in lower Courts.– Close supervision and control should be exercised by District Judges over the execution of decree business pending in all Courts subordinate to them; and where any officer is found habitually to neglect this branch of work or to dispose of it in a perfunctory manner, he should be reported to the High Court.

 

  1. Application for stay of execution.– All applications for stay of execution should be treated as urgent.

 

  1. Presiding Officer to see that money realised on warrants has been accounted for.– To prevent defalcation, Presiding Officer should, while hearing execution applications, verify by personal inspection of previous warrants issued by him that any money previously realised by the execution bailiff or process-server has been duly accounted for in the Nazirs account or otherwise disposed of through those accounts.

 

 

PART B——COURTS COMPETENT TO EXECUTE DECREES

 

  1. Courts competent to execute.– Section 37 to 39 of the Code of Civil Procedure define the Courts by which a decree may be executed. A decree may be executed by “the Court which passed it”, or by any Court to which it is transferred for execution. It should be noted that the expression ‘Court which passed a decree’ has been defined in section 37 so as to include certain Courts other than the Court which actually passed the decree.

 

  1. Transfer of decree, fees for preparation of necessary documents.– When a decree is transferred by the Court which passed it to another Court for execution, the documents mentioned in Order XXI, Rule 6, must be sent to the latter Court. The work in connection with the preparation of these documents should be done by Court officials holding permanent appointments, on payment in the first instance, by the person applying for the transfer of the decree, of a fee of Re. 1. The amount so recovered shall be credited to Government under the head [“1230000 — Law & Order Receipts, 1231000 — Justice, 1231003 — Justice-General Fees. Fines & Forfeitures (74)”.]

A decree-holder, however, may, at his option, file with his application a copy of his decree duly stamped in accordance with Article 7 of Schedule I to the Court-fees Act VII of 1870, and when he does so, he shall be exempted from the fee of Re. 1 prescribed in this paragraph, the remaining documents being prepared by the officials of the Court without further payment by the decree-holder.

 

2-A. Execution pending receipt of order of transfer of decree.– A provision has been made in Order XXI, Rule 10, Civil Procedure Code, as amended by the Lahore High Court, to enable the decree-holder to apply for immediate execution through the Court within whose jurisdiction the judgment-debtor, is, by producing merely the decree and an affidavit of non-satisfaction pending the receipt of a formal order of transfer under section 39, Civil Procedure Code.

  1. Channel of transmission of decrees transferred.– Where the Court to which a decree is to be sent for execution is situate within the same district as the Court which passed the decree, the Court passing the decree, shall send the same directly to the former Court. But, where the former Court is situate in a different district the Court, which passed the decree, shall send it to the District Court, of the district in which the decree is to be executed. (Order XXI, Rule 5 of the Code).

 

  1. Execution of transferred decree.– Under Order XXI, Rule 8 of Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, a decree sent under the provisions of section 39 for execution to another district may be executed either by the District Court to which it is sent, or by any Subordinate Court of competent jurisdiction to which the District Court may refer it, and under section 42, C.P.C. the Court executing the decree has the same powers of execution as if the decree had been passed by itself. The execution files of such cases should remain with the record of the Court by which the decree is executed, and should not be returned to the Court by which the decree was passed.

 

  1. Amount realised on transfer of decrees to be certified and noted.– A certificate showing the extent to which the decree has been executed is required, by section 41 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, to be sent to the Court which passed the decree, as to execution so certified, and the particulars should be entered in that Court’s register of Civil suits under the head `Return of Execution’ in order to prevent a double execution being taken out in any other district.
  2. Register of decrees transferred and decrees received by transfer.– As a further safeguard, and to ensure due compliance with the provisions of Order XXI, Rule 6 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, a register should be maintained in each district showing the decrees transferred to other Courts for execution, and those received from other Courts. The register should be in two parts and in the form prescribed; one part of the register should be reserved for decrees transferred to other Courts, and the other half for decrees received from other Courts.

 

PART C—-POWERS OF EXECUTING COURTS

 

  1. Mode of execution Receivers.– The various modes in which execution of a decree may the ordered are given in section 51 of the Code as follows:–

 

(a)           By delivery of any property specifically decreed.

(b)          By attachment and sale, or by sale, without attachment of any property.

(c)           By arrest and detention of the judgment-debtor.

(d)           By appointment of a Receiver; or

(e)           In such other manner as the nature of the relief may require.

 

In most cases, the methods specified in (a), (b) and (c) alone are resorted to and are found adequate. The appointment of a Receiver may be tried where the value of the property is sufficient to bear the cost and where such appointment is expected to be conducive to harmonious relations between the judgment-debtor and the decree-holder and to provide for the discharge of the decree in a satisfactory manner.

 

1-A.        Execution of a decree for delivery of property.– When it is sought to enforce a decree in Clause (b) by attachment of the judgment-debtor’s property, it should be noted that the period of six months prescribed by Rule 31, sub-rule (2) of Order XXI, Civil Procedure Code, for the sale of the property has been reduced to three months by the Lahore High Court.

 

The Court is empowered, however, to extend this period up to six months in any special case.

 

The period of six months mentioned in Order XXI, Rule 32 Civil Procedure Code, has also been reduced to three.

 

  1. Power of executing Court to question the validity of the decree.– An executing Court cannot go behind the decree or question the jurisdiction of the Court which passed it (22 P.R. 1919, I.L.R., V. Lah. 54). Its function is to execute the decree as it stands. It may, however, refer to the judgment to ascertain its meaning when the terms of the decree are ambiguous.

 

  1. Power of executing Court to decide question arising in execution.– Section 47 of the Code of Civil Procedure confers wide powers on the executing Court to decide all questions arising between the parties to the suit in which the decree was passed, or their representatives, and relating to the execution, discharge or satisfaction of the decree. Such questions must be decided by the executing Court and no separate suit is maintainable for the purpose.

 

[An order under rules 60, 98, 99, 101 and 103 of Order XXI Civil Procedure Code is to be deemed to be a decree and is, therefore, appeal able.]

 

  1. Execution of decree pending appeal.– The filing of an appeal from a decree, is by itself no bar to its execution, and execution may proceed unless it is stayed by an order of the Appellate Court or the Court which passed the decree (vide Order XLI, Rules 5 and 6). It should be noted, however, that when an order is made for the sale of immovable property during the pendency of the appeal, and the judgment-debtor applies for stay of the sale, the Court ordering the sale is bound to stay it, though it can impose such terms as to security or otherwise as it thinks fit [Order XLI, Rule 6(2)].

 

  1. Security when execution is stayed.– When a stay of execution is granted under Order XXI, Rule 26, Civil Procedure Code, the rule, as amended by the Lahore High Court, makes it compulsory for the Court to require security or impose such conditions as it thinks fit unless sufficient cause is shown to the contrary.

 

 

PART D—PAYMENT INTO COURT AND CERTIFICATION OF PAYMENTS OUT OF COURT

 

  1. Payment or adjustment need not be certified.– Order XXI, Rule 2(1) provides that, where money is paid or a decree is adjusted out of Court, the creditor shall certify the payment. Rule 2(2) provides that the judgment debtor may do so. Rule 2(3) provides that a payment or adjustment, which has not been certified, shall not be recognised by the executing Court.

 

[Omitted].

 

  1. Application to deposit decretal amount requires no stamp and no talbana required for notice to decree-holder.– No stamp duty shall be levied on an application by a judgment-debtor to deposit money under a decree of Court, and no talbana for the issue of the notice to be given to the decree-holder under Order XXI, Rule 1(2) of the Code of Civil Procedure, should be recovered. The decree-holder should be informed of any payment made by service post-card. The deposit money should be disposed of in accordance with Article 247 of the Civil Account Code, Volume I and paragraph 161 of the Punjab Treasury Manual.

 

  1. Payment by money order special form.– Under the “Explanation” to sub-rule (i) of Rule 1 Order XXI, of the First Schedule to the Civil Procedure Code, a judgment-debtor may, if he so desires, pay the decretal amount or any part thereof, into the Court by money order on a form which has been specially approved by the High Court. The form to be used is Pakistan Money Order form No. L./M.O. 6 prescribed by the Postal authorities and can be obtained from all Post Offices.

 

 

PART E — PROCEDURE ON APPLICATION FOR EXECUTION

  1. Form and contents.– An application for execution must be in writing except when an oral application is made under Order XXI, Rule 11 (i). Upon an application for execution being filed, the Court shall scrutinize it to see that all the requirements of Order XXI, Rules 11 (2), 12, 13 and 14 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, have been duly complied with. The application should state distinctly the mode in which the assistance of the Court is sought and the proceedings should be confined to that mode, unless any amendment has been allowed. When an application is for the attachment of immovable property, special care shall be taken that the specification and verification required by Order XXI, Rule 13, of the Code have been furnished. The Court may also require the applicant to produce the authenticated extract mentioned in Order XXI, Rule 14, when the property is land registered in the Collector’s office.

 

[2.           Limitation.– The law of limitation, as regards applications for execution, found in Article 181 of the First Schedule of the Limitation Act, 1908 (IX of 1908) and section 48 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908), needs careful attention. An application for execution must be filed within three years of the date of the final decree but no order for execution of a decree can be passed if an application presented more than six years after certain dates specified in section 48 of the Code of Civil Procedure. This section only bars execution for a specified time but the rights of the decree-holder in other respects are not affected. Section 48 of the Code lays down a maximum period of limitation after the expiry of which it is not open to a decree-holder to make a fresh application for the execution of the decree. The presentation of fresh application for the execution of the decree is prohibited but the Court can make order in execution proceedings which have been presented before the expiry of such period even after the expiry of the period of six years.

 

By section 11 of the Punjab Debtors Protection Act, 1936, the period of limitation is also six years in certain cases specified therein.]

 

2-A.        Restrictions placed by Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act.– The restrictions imposed by section 21 (b) of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act, 1934, on the power of a Civil Court to execute its decrees in certain circumstances should be carefully noted. The decrees passed by a Civil Court in certain cases cannot be executed during the period provided for payment in an agreement authenticated by a Debt Conciliation Board under section 17 of the Act and for a further period of six months thereafter. The restriction applies only to decrees passed in suits brought—

 

(i)            by an unsecured creditor for the recovery of debt in respect of which a certificate has been granted by the Board under section 20 (1) of the Act, or

 

(ii)          by any creditor for the recovery of a debt incurred after the date of agreement made under section 17 of the Act.

 

  1. Admission and further proceeding.– When the application for execution is in order, or has been amended under Order XXI, Rule 7, of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, and is within time, the Court shall proceed as directed in Order XXI, Rule 17 (4), and shall cause the application to be entered in the proper register. A copy of the decree need not be filed when execution is taken out in the Court by which the decree was passed. If in any case it is not possible to verify the correctness of the application from the Court register, the original decree should be sent for and examined by the Court.

 

3-A.        Amendment.– It should be noted that according to Order XXI, Rule 17 (1) Civil Procedure Code, the Court can either reject the application if it is not in order or allow the defect to be remedied. The Lahore High Court has amended this rule so as to make it compulsory for the Court to fix a time within which the defect shall be remedied.

 

  1. Duty of Court to ascertain the amount due.– Whenever, on an application for the execution of a decree, or whenever, in the course of execution proceedings, it is necessary to ascertain the amount of money which is or which remains due under the decree, the judicial officer should form his own conclusion on the matter therefrom. He should not rely on mere kaifyats or office notes made by ministerial officers.

 

  1. Several Decree holders.– When an application is made to a Judicial Officer, under Order XXI, Rule 15, of the Code of Civil Procedure for the execution of the whole decree by one or more persons not being all the persons in whose favour the decree appears to be, he should cause notice thereof to be given to the remaining decree-holders or their representatives, and he ought not to grant the application unless, after all these parties have had an opportunity of being heard, he is satisfied that there is good reason for the application.

 

  1. Several decree-holders.– Where the decree is severally in favour of more persons than one, specifying what each is entitled to, there may be applications for partial execution. But where the decree is jointly in favour of more persons than one, the application must be for the execution of the entire decree, so far as it remains unexecuted or unsatisfied, and if the application is for execution of a fraction or a proportionate part of the decree only, it should be refused.

 

  1. Transferee.– When an application for the execution of a decree is made, under the provisions of Order XXI, rule 16, of the Code of Civil Procedure, by a person claiming to be entitled to the benefit of the decree in consequence of a transfer of the same to him from the original decree-holder by an assignment in writing, the Court must cause notice of the application to be given to the transferor, and it cannot grant the application unless it is satisfied after the transferor has had an opportunity of being heard that the transfer has in fact been effected.

 

In cases in which the Court grants the application, it should record its reasons for so doing and make an order that thenceforward the name of the applicant shall stand on the record as decree-holder instead of that of the original decree-holder.

 

  1. Notice to judgment debtor.– When an application is made more than two years after the date of the decree or against the legal representatives of a party to the decree, the Court must first issue a notice to the person against whom execution is applied for requiring him to show cause why the decree should not be executed against him, unless the case falls within the proviso to sub-rule (1) of Rule 22 of Order XXI, or the Court dispenses with the notice under sub-rule (2) of the same Rule in which latter case the failure to record any reasons is now deemed to be only an irregularity not amounting to a defect in jurisdiction (vide the rule as amended by the Lahore High Court).

 

  1. Attention to service of process.– Attention is invited to the provisions of Order XXI, Rules 24 and 25, regarding process for execution. Rule 24 requires that in every case a day shall be specified on or before which the process is to be executed. Rule 25 makes it incumbent on the Court to examine the officer entrusted with the execution, when the process is not duly executed, to satisfy itself as regards the reasons for its non-execution and to record the result of its inquiry. If the Courts make careful inquiry in such cases and do not blindly accept the reports on the processes, the percentage of infructuous applications will appreciably diminish.

 

9-A.        Address for service.– It should be noted that according to Order XXI, Rule 104, Civil Procedure Code, as framed by the Lahore High Court, service on any party shall be deemed to be sufficient in execution proceedings if it is effected at the address for service referred to in Order VIII, Rule 11, Civil Procedure Code, subject to the provisions of Order VII, Rule 24, Civil Procedure Code. This rule, however, does not apply to notices prescribed by Order XXI, Rule 22, Civil Procedure Code, to show cause against execution in certain cases.

 

  1. Period of Pendency.– Execution proceedings will, for statistical purposes, be considered as only pending for the period during which something is being done towards execution. If the decree-holder has realized his instalment, or obtained the satisfaction asked for in the application for execution, the case should be struck off, even though a portion of the decree still remains unexecuted. Similarly, the case should be dismissed if the applicant for execution does not take necessary steps to prosecute his application. The Court should record its reasons for the action taken in such cases.

 

  1. Attachment of moneys due to judgment-debtors.– A case in which the judgment-creditor prays for a prohibitory order for the attachment of moneys due to the judgment-debtor (whether as a moiety of his salary or otherwise), should be dismissed as soon as the prohibitory order has been duly served and the file should be sent to the Civil Nazir. The subsequent realisation of the moneys concerned forms part of the ministerial duties of the Civil Nazir. If, for any reason, such realisation is not promptly and satisfactorily effected, the judgment-creditor can ask the Court to take necessary action.

 

 

 

PART F—-EXECUTION BY ARREST AND IMPRISONMENT

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

[3.           Present law of arrest.– No Judgment-debtor, as defined in Section 2(c) of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Ordinance, 1960, (XV of 1960) shall be arrested in execution of a decree for money (Section 5 of Ordinance XV of 1960). These changes should be carefully studied and followed.]

 

  1. Judgment-debtor should be asked whether he wants to be declared insolvent.– A judgment-debtor against whom no act of bad faith is proved can obtain his discharge as an insolvent under Act V of 1920; whenever a judgment-debtor is to be committed to jail, he should be informed that he may apply to be declared insolvent (Section 55 (3) of the Code).

 

  1. [Omitted].
  2. Arrest during vacation.– Warrants of arrest should be held in suspense during the [August] Vacation.

 

 

 

PART G—–EXECUTION OF DECREES FOR THE DELIVERY OF IMMOVABLE PROPERTY

 

The steps to be taken, under Order XXI, Rules 35 and 36 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, in the case of the delivery of immovable property are as follows:-

 

(a)           When the property is in possession of a person who is bound by the decree or who holds-possession on behalf of one who is so bound.– First, where a decree is for delivery of immovable property, if such property is in the possession of any person bound by the decree, such person may be called upon to vacate the property in order that possession may be delivered to the person to whom it has been adjudged, or his agent; and if he refuses to do so he may be removed from the property in order to effect such delivery of possession. Here the endorsement on the warrant should state that the property was found in the possession of A (naming the person), and that he was one of the persons bound by the decree or held on behalf of one of those persons (naming the persons); that he was required to vacate the property, and that, on his doing so, the person entitled under the decree was put in possession; or that, on his refusal to do so, he was removed from the property, and the person entitled under the decree was put in possession.

 

(b)          Decree for joint possession.– Secondly, where a decree is for joint possession of immovable property, such possession shall be delivered by affixing a copy of the warrant in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming by beat of drum at some convenient place the substance of the decree. Here the endorsement on the warrant should state on what part of the property the copy of the process was affixed, and at what place the substance of decree was proclaimed.

 

(c)           Obtaining access to deliver possession.– Thirdly, where possession of any building or enclosure is to be delivered, and the person in possession, being bound by the decree, does not afford free access, the officers of the Court may (after giving reasonable warning and facility to any woman, not appearing in public according to custom, to withdraw) remove or open any lock or bolt or break open any door or do any other act necessary for putting the decree-holder in possession.

 

Here the endorsement should describe briefly the action taken, as in paragraph (a) above.

 

(d)          When property is in possession of a person who is not bound by the decree.– Fourthly, if the property is in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy it and not bound by the decree to relinquish such occupancy, a copy of the warrant must be affixed in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclamation made as provided in Order XXI, Rule 36 of the Code. Here the endorsement should state that a copy of the warrant had been put up (stating where it was affixed), and that the substance of the decree had been proclaimed.

 

Before issuing a warrant for the delivery of immovable property, the Court should ascertain from the decree-holder, or his agent, the name of the person whom he believes to be in possession of such property to guide it in selecting the particular mode of delivery suitable to the case.

When a decree is passed giving possession of agricultural land, the date on which possession is to be delivered should always be specified in the decree, and orders passed as to any standing crops that may be on the land. If this has not been done in the decree, it should be done in the order which is sent to the Collector by the Court executing the decree. If, however, no date is specified in either the decree or the order, and the land of which possession is to be delivered is in the cultivating possession of the judgment-debtor, the Collector should at once refer to the Civil Court for instructions as to whether or not he is to delay execution of the decree, until any crop which may have been sown by the judgment-debtor and is standing on the land, has been removed.

 

 

 

 

PART H—ATTACHMENT

 

  1. Attachment of standing crops, trees and salary.– The law as to attachment is contained in sections 60-64 and Order XXI, Rules 41-57, Civil Procedure Code, and Section [170, Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967(XVII of 1967).]

 

The changes made in Rules 53 and 54 by the Lahore High Court (vide Chapter [22] should be noted as also the fact that in the Punjab standing crops, excepting cotton and sugarcane, are not now liable to attachment or sale in execution of a decree. Standing trees (apart from land) are also exempt from sale (vide section 10 of the Punjab Debtor’s Protection Act).

 

Attention is drawn to Act IX of 1937 amending Section 60, Civil Procedure Code, which provides that the salary of any public officer or of any servant of a Railway Company or local authority shall be exempt from attachment to the extent of the first hundred rupees and one-half the remainder of such salary in respect of any proceedings arising out of any suit instituted on or after the Ist June, 1937. Attachment orders should contain the information whether the suit was filed before or after the Ist June, 1937.

 

  1. Mode of attachment of immovable property.– The mode of attaching immovable property is by issuing a prohibitory order to the judgment-debtor and to the public generally (Order XXI, Rule 54). When the property is land paying revenue to Government, three copies of the prohibitory order shall be prepared. In the case of other immovable property, only two copies are necessary. The details given in the schedule annexed to the order shall be identical with those given in the schedule of the property given in the warrant. Strict compliance with provisions of law is necessary to make the attachment valid.

 

  1. Mode of attachment of immovable property.– The warrant, together with the requisite copies of the prohibitory order, shall be delivered to the Nazir, who will himself, or through his subordinates, fix up the copies and proclaim the order, in accordance with the directions given in the warrant. The Nazir will personally make upon the warrant the endorsement required by law, and return it duly endorsed within the specified time to the Court. Any person deputed by the Nazir, who performs any of the acts constituting the attachment, shall submit a separate return stating the manner in which, and the day and hour at which, he did such act. This return will be attached by the Nazir to the warrant.

 

  1. Attention to compliance with legal formalities.– The attention of all civil courts is drawn to the necessity of making it a point to scrutinize the service of warrants of attachment before they take further action with regard to the sale or temporary alienation of the property attached. The attachment of land and houses requires particular care and the court should thoroughly satisfy itself that all the formalities, necessary for a legal attachment, have been complied with. Failure to comply with these legal formalities may constitute material irregularity within the meaning of Order XXI, Rule 90, Code of Civil Procedure, and may cause very serious trouble and loss to the parties later on. It should be noted that a copy of the attachment order is first to be affixed on the property and then upon the Court house. All Courts will, therefore, require the Reader to record a note on the warrant of attachment or on file, that the specific formalities, required by law in the case, have been actually compiled with. The Presiding Officer will carefully scrutinize such note and initial in token of its correctness.

 

  1. Warrant of attachment of land. Drum-beating charges.– Where the order is for the attachment of land, the warrant should, in accordance with the provisions of Section [170] of the [Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967 (XVII of 1967)], be addressed to the Collector and be sent to him for execution along with the necessary copies of the prohibitory-order. The Collector and his office will then be responsible for executing it in accordance with the specified legal formalities and to affix necessary prohibitory-orders, first on the property and then on the Court-house of the Judge, issuing the attachment, and in his own office. The collector will return the warrant to the Court concerned when it has been duly executed, with an endorsement under his signature certifying that all the legal formalities required have actually been complied with and the Court will, thereafter, proceed as directed in paragraph 4 above.

 

[Payment of drum-beating charges may be allowed to be made at the discretion of the District Judge.]

 

  1. Precept.– Upon the application by a decree-holder, the Court which passes a decree may issue a precept to another Court to attach the judgment-debtor’s property, when this course is convenient, provided that the Court to which the precept is issued is competent to execute the decree (see Section 46, Code of Civil Procedure).

 

  1. Effect of dismissal of execution petition.– It should be noted that on the dismissal of an execution petition, `attachment’ automatically comes to an end (see Order XXI, Rule 57).

 

  1. The Central Government has issued the following notification under section 60 (1) (l) of the Civil Procedure Code :-

The 2nd October 1940.

No. 186/37.- In pursuance of clause (l) of the proviso to sub-section (1) of section 60 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act V of 1908), the Central Government is pleased to declare that the following allowances payable to any public officer in the service of the said Government, or any servant of a Federal Railway or of a Cantonment authority or of the port authority of a major port, shall be exempt from attachment by order of a Court, namely:-

 

(1)           All kinds of travelling allowances.

 

(2)           All kinds of conveyance allowances.

 

(3)           All allowances granted for meeting the cost of –

 

(a)           uniforms, and

(b)          rations.

 

(4)           All allowances granted as compensation for higher cost of living in localities considered by Government to be expensive localities including hill stations.

 

(5)           All house-rent allowances.

 

  1. The Punjab Government has issued the following notification under clause (l) of the proviso to sub-section (1) of Section 60 of the Code of Civil Procedure:-

 

HOME DEPARTMENT JUDICIAL
The 5th January 1943.

 

No. 8298-J-42/489-In exercise of the powers conferred by clause (l) of the proviso to sub-section (1) of Section 60 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (Act V of 1908), the Governor of the Punjab is pleased to declare that the “Dearness allowance” payable to any public officer serving His Majesty in connection with the affairs of the Province shall be exempt from attachment in execution of a decree.

 

 

 

PART J—-OBJECTIONS TO ATTACHMENT

 

[1.           Summary Procedure.– Investigation of objections to attachment of property under Order XXI Rule 58, Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, should be confined to the points indicated in Rules 59, 60 and 62 of the said Order. It is to be remembered that the order passed under Rule 60 is now to be treated as a decree and is appealable and no separate suit lies to establish right, title or interest claimed in the attached property.

 

  1. Power to dismiss objections without trial.– (1) The amendment made in Rule 58 of Order XXI of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908), should be carefully noted and followed…..Where any claim is preferred or any objection is made to the attachment of any property, attached in execution of a decree, on the ground that such property is not liable to such attachment, the Court is to investigate the claim or objection treating the same as if it was a suit and the claimant was party to it as now under Rule 62 of Order XXI Code of Civil Procedure an independent suit is barred. The Court will, however, not make any investigation where it appears to it that the claim or objection (whether made before or after the sale) has been designedly or unreasonably delayed or was not made within reasonable time or within one year of the date of first attachment of the said property in the execution of said decree, whichever is earlier, unless the claimant or objector-

(a)           proves title acquired in good faith and for consideration subsequent to the date of the first attachment;

(b)          proves that his predecessor-in-interest, whether his interest existed at the time of such attachment or was acquired thereafter, fraudulently omitted to make a claim or objection; and

(c)           impleads all such predecessors-in-interest.

 

(2)           Postponement of sale.– When the property to which the claim or objection applies, has been advertised for sale, the Court ordering the sale may postpone it pending investigation of the claim or objection.]

  1. Objection by Parties.– Order XXI, Rule 58, deals with claims by third persons. Objections by parties to execution proceedings as such or their representatives fall within the scope of Section 47 of the Code. Such objections must be decided in the execution proceedings, as a regular suit for the purpose is barred by the provisions of Section 47.

 

 

PART K — CUSTODY AND DISPOSAL OF MOVABLE PROPERTY PENDING SALE

  1. References.– Rules relating to the custody and disposal of movable property (other than agricultural produce) attached pending sale, are contained in Rules 43 to 43-D of Order XXI of the First Schedule to the Code of Civil Procedure (Act V of 1908), as modified or added by the High Court which are reproduced below for facility of reference:-

 

Code of Civil Procedure, First Schedule

( RULES MADE BY THE HIGH COURT UNDER SECTION 122, OF THE CODE )

Order XXI, Rules 43 to 43-D

 

  1. Attachment of movable property other than agricultural produce in possession of judgment-debtor.– (1) Where the property to be attached is moveable property other than agricultural produce, in the possession of the judgment-debtor, the attachment shall be made by actual seizure, and the attaching officer shall keep the property in his own custody or in the custody of one of his subordinates, and shall be responsible for the due custody thereof:

 

When property may be sold at once.– Provided that, when the property seized is subject to speedy and natural decay or when the expense of keeping it in custody is likely to exceed its value, the attaching officer may sell it at once; and

 

Livestock and other articles which cannot be conveniently removed: Superdar.– Provided also that, when the property attached consists of livestock, agricultural implements or other articles which cannot conveniently be removed, and the attaching officer does not act under the first proviso to this Rule, he may at the instance of the judgment-debtor or of the decree-holder or of any person claiming to be interested in such property leave it in the village or place where it has been attached-

 

(a)           in the charge of the person at whose instance the property is retained in such village or place, if such person enters into a bond in Form No. 15-A of Appendix E to this Schedule with one or more sufficient sureties for its production when called for, or

 

(b)          in the charge of an officer of the Court, if a suitable place for its safe custody be provided and the remuneration of the officer for a period of 15 days at such rate as may from time to time be fixed by the High Court be paid in advance, or

 

(c)           in the charge of a village lambardar or such other respectable person as will undertake to keep such property, subject to the orders of the Court if such person enters into a bond in Form No.15-B of Appendix E with one or more sureties for its production.

 

(2)           Restitution.– Whenever an attachment made under the provisions of this Rule ceases for any of the reasons specified in Rules 55, 57 or 60 of this order, the Court may order the restitution of the attached property to the person in whose possession it was before attachment.

(3)           Schedule of property.– When property is made over to a custodian under sub-clauses (a) or (c) of clause (1), the Schedule of property annexed to the bond shall be drawn up by the attaching officer in triplicate, and dated and signed by-

(a)           the custodian and his sureties,

(b)          the officer of the Court who made the attachment,

(c)           the person whose property is attached and made over, and

(d)          two respectable witnesses.

One copy will be transmitted to the Court by the attaching officer and placed on the record of the proceedings under which the attachment has been ordered, one copy will be made over to the person whose property is attached and one copy will be made over to the custodian.

 

43-A.     When property kept in the village.– (1) Whenever attached property is kept in the village or place where it is attached, the attaching officer shall forthwith report the fact to the Court and shall with his report forward a list of the property seized.

(2)           When property removed to Court.– If attached property is not sold under the first proviso to Rule 43 or retained in the village or place where it is attached under the second proviso to that Rule it shall be brought to the Court-house and delivered to the proper officer of the Court.

(3)           Resignation by custodian.– A custodian appointed under the second proviso to Rule 43, may, at any time, terminate his responsibilities by giving notice to the Court of his desire to be relieved of his trust and delivering to the proper officer of the Court the property made over to him.

(4)           Receipt to be given to custodian.– When any property is taken back from a custodian, he shall be granted a receipt for the same.

 

43-B.      Foddering of livestock.– (1) Whenever attached property kept in the village or place where it is attached is livestock, the person at whose instance it is retained shall provide for its maintenance and, if he fails to do so and if it is in charge of an officer of the Court, it shall be removed to the Court-house.

Nothing in this Rule shall prevent the judgment-debtor, or any person claiming to be interested in such stock from making such arrangements for feeding the same as may not be inconsistent with its safe custody.

(2)           Recovery of expenses.– The Court may direct that any sums which have been expended by the attaching officer or are payable to him, if not duly deposited or paid, be recovered from the proceeds of property, if sold or be paid by the person declared entitled to delivery before he receives the same. The Court may also order that any sums deposited or paid under these Rules be recovered as costs of the attachment from any party to the proceedings.

43-C.      Expenses to be paid in advance by decree-holder.– When an application is made for the attachment of livestock or other movable property, the decree-holder shall pay into Court in cash such sum as will cover the costs of the maintenance and custody of the property for 15 days. If within three clear days, before the expiry of any such period of 15 days the amount of such costs for such further period as the Court may direct be not paid into Court, the Court, on receiving a report thereof from the proper officer, may issue an order for the withdrawal of the attachment and direct by whom the costs of the attachment are to be paid.

43-D.     Liability of Superdar.– Any person who has undertaken to keep attached property under Rule 43 (1) (c) shall be liable to be proceeded against as a surety under section 145 of the Code and shall be liable to pay in execution proceedings the value of any such property willfully lost by him.

 

FORM NO.15-A
BOND FOR SAFE CUSTODY OF MOVABLE PROPERTY ATTACHED
AND LEFT IN CHARGE OF PERSON INTERESTED AND SURETIES
Order XXI, Rule 43

In the Court of —————————————– at————————-
Civil suit No.——————————————- of———————————-

A.B. of——————————————————————————

against

C.D. of——————————————————————————

Know all men by these presents that we, I.J. of——————————————————, etc., and K.L. of———- etc., and M.N. of—————–etc., are jointly and severally bound to the Judge of the Court of——————-in Rupees————————– to be paid to the said Judge, for which payment to be made, we bind ourselves, and each of us, in the whole, our and each of our heirs, executors and administrators, jointly and severally by these presents.

Dated this————————– day of————————– 19———–

And whereas the movable property specified in the schedule hereunto annexed has been attached under a warrant from the said Court, dated the———————-day of———————————- 19—————-, in execution of a decree in favour of————————– in the suit No.—————– of——————— 19————-on the file of———————– and the said property has been left in the charge of the said I.J.

Now the condition of this obligation is that, if the above bounden I.J. shall duly account for and produce when required before the said Court all and every the property aforesaid and shall obey any further order of the Court in respect thereof, then this obligation will be void: otherwise it shall remain in full force.

I.J.

K.L.

M.N.

Signed and delivered by the above bounden———————————— in the presence of————————————

 

FORM NO. 15-B
BOND FOR SAFE CUSTODY OF MOVABLE PROPERTY ATTACHED
AND LEFT IN CHARGE OF ANY PERSON AND SURETIES
Order XXI, Rule 43 (1) (c)

In the Court of —————————————– at————————-Civil suit No.——————————————- of———————————-

A.B. of——————————————————————————

against

C.D. of——————————————————————————

Know all men by these presents that we, I.J. of——————————————————, etc., and K.L. of———– etc., and M.N. of—————–etc., are jointly and severally bound to the Judge of the Court of————————–in Rupees——————– to be paid to the said Judge, for which payment to be made, we bind ourselves, and each of us, in the whole, our and each of our heirs, executors and administrators, jointly and severally by these presents.

Dated this————————– day of————————– 19———–

And whereas the movable property specified in the schedule hereunto annexed has been attached under a warrant from the said Court, dated the———————-day of———————————- 19—————-, in execution of a decree in favour of—————– in the suit No.—————– of—————-19————-on the file of———————– and the said property has been left in the charge of the said I.J.

Now the condition of this obligation is that, if the above bounden I. J. shall duly account for and produce when required before the said Court all and every of the property aforesaid and shall obey any further order of the Court in respect thereof, then this obligation shall be void: otherwise it shall remain in full force and be enforceable against the above bounden I.J. in accordance with the procedure laid down in Section 145, Civil Procedure Code, as if the aforesaid I.J. were a surety for the restoration of property taken in execution of a decree.

I.J.

K.L.

M.N.

Signed and delivered by the above bounden———————————— in the presence of————————————

  1. Jewels and portable property to be brought to Court.–Light and readily portable articles of all kinds, and especially valuable property of small bulk, such as jewels, etc., shall, after seizure, be taken to the head quarters of the Court executing the decree and be made over there to the custody of such officer as the Court may direct.

 

Note:- Property of the nature described in this rule when placed in the custody of the Nazir may be placed by him in his cash chest and lodged in the outer room of Treasury, if it is open, as provided in order 4(2) of the Punjab Treasury Manual; if it is closed, the Presiding Officer of the Court must make other suitable arrangement for its safe custody.

 

  1. Bulky property and Livestock.–Live Stock and other property which is bulky or not readily portable should be dealt with in accordance with the second proviso to Rule 43.

 

  1. Form of schedule of property.– The schedule of property to be annexed to the bond which a custodian must furnish under the above-mentioned Rule must be in the following form:-

 

Schedule of property attached

 

Schedule of property attached and made over to——————————son of ————————————- of——————————— as custodian on the ————————- 19————.

Detail of property                                      Estimated value.

Total value———-

Sd.—————-                                                          Sd.——————

Witness.                                                                 Custodian.

Sd.—————-                                                          Sd.——————

Witness.                                                                Attaching Officer

Sd.——————

Judgment-debtor

 

( TO BE PRINTED ON THE REVERSE OF THE FORM )

 

Directions in regard to attached property

 

  1. I. No person can be compelled by the Court or attaching officer thereof to take charge of attached property as a custodian.

 

  1. II. A custodian may at any time terminate his responsibilities by giving notice to the Court of his desire to be relieved of his trust, and delivering to the proper officer of the Court the property made over to him.

III.          When any property is taken back from a custodian he should be granted a receipt for the same.

 

  1. IV. When property is made over to a custodian, a schedule of property should be drawn up by the attaching officer in triplicate, dated and signed by–

(a)           the custodian and his sureties;

(b)          the officer of the Court who made the attachment;

(c)           the person whose property is attached and made over; and

(d)          two respectable witnesses.

 

One copy will be transmitted to the Court by the attaching officer and placed on the record; one copy will be made over to the person whose property is attached and one copy will be made over to the custodian.

 

  1. In regard to livestock the following directions apply:-

 

(a)           The custodian is bound to take all reasonable and proper care of any livestock entrusted to him.

(b)           The custodian is responsible for the value of any livestock which he fails to deliver to the Court or its authorised officer, when required so to do. If any live-stock is lost or stolen or dies while in the hands of a custodian such custodian is bound to satisfy the Court that its loss or death was not due to his fault or neglect.

(c)           If the judgment-debtor or any person claiming to be interested in any attached animal has been permitted to make arrangements for feeding the same (not being inconsistent with its safe custody, while it is under attachment) he may, in the case of poultry, milch cows, etc., take the eggs, milk, etc.

 

  1. Arrangement for feeding to be noted on Schedule.– Whenever attached property kept in the village or place where it is attached is live-stock, a note shall be added on the schedule to show what arrangements have been made for its keep, i.e., whether it is to be fed by the custodian and, if so, at what charge or by the judgment-debtor or any person interested. If it is to be fed by the judgment-debtor or a person claiming to be interested as permitted by Rule 43-B (1) of Order XXI, the arrangements made should be described on the Schedule to show that they are not inconsistent with its safe custody.

 

  1. Arrangements when value of property is liable to deteriorate.– If the property is of such a nature that its value will deteriorate unless special arrangements are made for its storage or for carrying out some preparatory process during the period of attachment, the necessary arrangements shall be made and noted at the foot of the schedule; provided that, if in such cases the judgement-debtor and decree-holder agree in writing to the immediate sale of the property, the officer shall proceed to sell it by auction forthwith, after giving such notice to intending purchasers as the circumstances of the case allow.

 

  1. Arrangements subject to approval of Court.– All arrangements made under these rules shall be made subject to the approval and confirmation of the Court executing the decree.

 

  1. Modification of arrangements.– If the arrangements made by the attaching officer are modified by the Court, a note of the modifications ordered shall be made on the schedule and such note shall be signed by the parties who originally signed the schedule or a fresh schedule shall be prepared in the manner provided above according as the Court may direct.

 

  1. Release of property.– If the Court directs the release of the property, in whole or in part, the articles released shall be made over to the person to whom the Court orders them to be delivered, by an officer of the Court, in the presence of the custodian, judgment-debtor and the witnesses mentioned; or, if their presence cannot be conveniently obtained, two other respectable witnesses.

 

  1. Reclamations.– If any reclamations are then made, a note of such reclamation shall be made at the time by the officer of the Court, and such note shall be signed by the person making them. The statements of the custodian and witnesses shall, likewise, be recorded on the subject by the officer of the Court, and shall be signed by such custodian and witnesses.

 

  1. Custodian liable for criminal breach of trust.– Any person who has undertaken to keep attached property under Rule 43(1)(c) of Order XXI shall not only be liable to be proceeded against as a surety under Section 145 (vide Rule 43-D), but if the facts disclose that he has been guilty of `criminal breach of trust’, he will also be liable to be prosecuted for that offence.

 

  1. Instructions regarding attachment of property which is not left in local custody.– Instructions laid down in Rule 43 to 43-D of Order XXI refer, in the main, to cases in which attached property is not removed from the town or village in which it is found by the attaching officer. In cases in which the property is not left in local custody, the attaching officer should still, in order to avoid, as far as possible, resistance or obstruction and to facilitate the disposal of claims be careful to attach the property in the presence of two respectable house-holders of the village or town where the attachment is made and to draw up a schedule of property attached and to procure their signature to it.

 

 

PART  L — SALE OF PROPERTY AND DELIVERY TO THE PURCHASER

 

  1. References.– The provisions of Act V of 1908 on the subject of sales are contained in Order XXI, Rules 64 to 102 as amended by the Lahore High Court (vide Chapter 22). Rules 64 to 73 deal with “sale generally”; Rules 74 to 81, with sale of movable property; and Rules 82 to 102, with sale of immovable property.

 

  1. Settlements of proclamation of sale.– Whenever a Court makes an order for the sale of any attached property under Order XXI, Rule 64, it shall, if the property be land assessed to land revenue, revenue-paying or revenue free land, or any interest in such land, act as directed in the rules hereinafter prescribed. If the property be of any other description, the Court shall fix a convenient day, not being distant more than fifteen days, for ascertaining the particulars specified in Order XXI, Rule 66 (2), and settling the proclamation of sale. Notice of the day so fixed shall be given to the parties or their pleaders.

 

[3. Enquiry as to encumbrances from Sub-Registrar’s office.– (1) If the property be immovable property (other than revenue-paying or revenue-free land), the Court may call upon the Sub-Registrar, within whose sub-district such property is situated, to search his registers and report, before the date fixed for settling the proclamation, to what encumbrances, if any, the property is liable. It is very desirable that such searches should be ordered in all cases, with a view to the preventing of fraud, but it should be noted that they cannot be ordered if the decree-holder is not willing to pay the necessary fees. The fees payable are at the rates prescribed in the second proviso to Article II of the table of registration fees published with Punjab Government notification No. 2818-73/2013-St-I, dated 28th June 1973, which is as follows:-

 

In exercise of the powers conferred by sections 78 & 79 of the Registration Act, 1908, the Governor of the Punjab is pleased to substitute the existing rates of Registration-fee with the following table of Registration-fees which shall take effect from 1st of July, 1973:-

 

ARTICLE II.– For inspections or searches by the registering officer under section 57-

 

(1)           search for or inspection of a single entry or document –

(a)           for the first year in the books of which search is made, for each entry or document……….Rs.2.00;

(b)           for every other year in the books of which search is continued, for each entry or document…..Rs.0.50;

 

(2)           general search for or inspection of any number of entries or documents relating to one and the same property or executed by or in favour of one and the same individual –

(a)           for the first year in the books of which search is made…….. Rs.4.00;

(b)           for every other year in the books of which search is continued……Rs.1.00;

 

Provided that no search fee shall be charged in respect of a document of which a copy is applied for when the names of the claiming and executing parties, the nature and date of documents and the date of registration are shown in the application for the copy;

Provided further that if a search is made at the request of a Civil Court for the purpose of ascertaining whether a specified property is encumbered or not, the fee to be levied in each such case shall be at the rates prescribed by clause (1) above, subject to the condition that a fee of not more than ten rupees shall be so levied.]

 

  1. Settlement of proclamation of sale. Estimate of value.– On the day so fixed, the Court shall, after perusing the documents, if any, filed under Order XXI, Rules 13 and 14, of the Code, and the report referred to in the preceding paragraph, after examining the decree-holder and judgment-debtor, if present, and after making such further inquiry as it may be considered necessary, settle the proclamation of sale specifying as clearly and accurately as possible the matters required by Order XXI, Rule 66(2), of the Code, in the following form:-

 

Description of property including name of village and boundaries, if necessary Name of judgment-debtor Extent of interest of judgment-debtor in the property, so far as it has been ascertained by the Court Detail of encumbrances, if any, to which the property is liable so far as they can be ascertained by the Court Any other known particulars bearing on the nature and value of the property

 

         

 

 

This proclamation for sale is an important part of the proceedings, and the details should be ascertained and noted with care. This will remove the basis for many a belated objection to the sale at a later stage.

 

It is necessary for the Court itself to give in this proclamation its own estimate of the value of the property. It is sufficient to include in it the estimate, if any, given by either or both of the parties (Proviso added to Order XXI, Rule 66 (2) (e) by the Lahore High Court).

 

[ The proclamation, when settled, shall be signed by the Judge, and shall be made in the manner prescribed by Order XXI, rule 67 of the Code. The rule added by the Lahore High Court may be noted and applied where applicable.

 

It should be noted that an interval of fifteen days must elapse between the date of the sale and the date of the proclamation being affixed on the Court-house and on the property, in the case of immovable property, and an interval of seven days must elapse, in the case of movable property. However, the judgment debtor can, by consent in writing, permit the sale to be held earlier. (See Order XXI, Rule 68 of the Code, as amended by the Lahore High Court.)].

 

  1. Information obtained after proclamation.– If, after the proclamation has been published, any matter is brought to the notice of the Court which it considers material for intending purchasers to know, the Court shall cause the same to be notified to intending purchasers when the property is put up for sale.

 

  1. Costs of proclamation.– The costs of the proceedings hereinbefore prescribed shall be paid, in the first instance, by the decree holder; but they shall be charged as part of the costs of execution, unless the Court, for reasons to be specified in writing, considers that they should, either wholly or in part, be omitted therefrom.

 

  1. Grant of time to debtor to arrange private alienation.– Attention is called to the provisions of Order XXI Rule 83, of the Code, which confers on the Court the power of postponing, at the instance of the judgment-debtor, a sale of immovable property in execution of decree, if it is satisfied that the amount of the decree may be raised by mortgage or lease or private sale of such property or of any other property of the judgment-debtor. Care must be taken that this power is not so exercised as to inflict an injury on the decree-holder.

In clause (3) of Rule 83 quoted above it is expressly laid down that the Rule does not apply to a sale of property directed to be sold in execution of decree for sale in enforcement of a mortgage of, or charge on, such property.

 

  1. Adjournment of sale.– The sale shall be held at the time and place specified in the proclamation, unless the Court adjourns it to a specified day and hour, or the officer conducting the sale (with the leave of the Court, if the sale is made in or within the precincts of the Court-house) adjourns it for reasons which must be duly recorded. Whenever a sale is adjourned for a longer period than thirty days, a fresh proclamation shall be made, unless the judgment-debtor consents to waive it.

 

9              Purchase at auction by decree-holder or officer connected with auction.– Attention is drawn to Order XXI, Rule 73, of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, which directs that an officer having any duty to perform in connection with any sale in execution of a decree, shall not directly or indirectly bid for, acquire, or attempt to acquire any interest in the property sold; and to Order XXI, Rule 72, of the Code, which prohibits the holder of a decree in execution of which property is sold from bidding for or purchasing the property without the express permission of the Court executing the decree.

 

  1. Decree-holder need not pay sale money.– Clause (2) of Rule 84 of Order XXI enables the Court to dispense with the deposit of earnest-money when the decree-holder is the purchaser and is entitled to set-off the purchase-money under Rule 72. Rule 86 makes the forfeiture of earnest money optional.

 

  1. Submission of statements of forfeiture of earnest money.– For procedure regarding submission of statements of forfeiture of deposits see Volume IV, Chapter 10-A, para. 6.

 

  1. Purchase money: its payment to decree-holder or its refund. Refund of commission.– “Purchase-money” deposited in Court upon the sale of immovable property shall be retained by the Court until the expiry of a period of fifteen days from the date of the order confirming the sale. If no notice of an appeal having been presented by the party seeking to set the sale aside, be given to the Court within that period, the purchase money less the sum which has to be credited to Government or paid to the Court Auctioneer as commission on the sale (see paragraph 21) may be paid on the demand of the decree holder. If such notice be given within the prescribed period, the purchase money shall be retained in deposit until the appeal is decided, unless the party at the time entitled to receive it gives security, to the satisfaction of the Court, to repay it at any time when he may be required by the Court so to do.

 

12-A.      The changes introduced by the Lahore High Court in Order XXI, Rule 89, Civil Procedure Code, require careful attention (vide chapter 22).

 

  1. Application to set aside sale.– Applications for setting aside sales are frequently made under Order XXI, Rule 90, Civil Procedure Code. An application under this Rule can be made not only by the decree-holder or a person entitled to rateable distribution in the assets but also by any person “whose interests are affected by the decree.” But the grounds on which such an application can be made are restricted and should be carefully borne in mind. An application under this Rule can only be made on the ground of material irregularity or fraud in publishing or conducting the sale, and, secondly, it must be proved that the applicant has suffered substantial injury as a result of the material irregularity or fraud complained of. Both these conditions must be satisfied before any sale is set aside under this Rule. It has been provided further in the Punjab that no sale can be set aside on any ground which the applicant could have put forward before the sale was conducted. An application under this Rule must be made within 30 days of the sale (Art. 166–Schedule I, of the Limitation Act, 1908).

 

  1. Application by purchaser to set aside sale.– Order XXI, Rule 91, of the Code of Civil Procedure 1908, enables the purchaser at a sale of immovable property in execution of decree to apply to the Court to set aside the sale on the ground, that the debtor had no saleable interest therein. Such an application must also be made within thirty days from the date of the sale (see Article 166, Schedule I to the Limitation Act, IX of 1908). It should be noted that the Rule applies only when the judgment-debtor has no interest at all in the property sold but not when he has some interest at any rate in it, however small that interest may be.

 

  1. Confirmation of sale: Appeal.– If no application to set aside the sale is made under Rules 89, 90 or 91 within thirty days or the application is disallowed, the Court must confirm the same. An appeal lies from an order confirming or setting aside a sale, but no separate suit is maintainable to challenge such an order. (Order XXI, Rule 92)

 

  1. Refund to purchaser.– When such a sale is set aside under Order XXI Rule 92, rule 93 provides for the recovery and repayment to the purchaser of the purchase-money. The Court should not refer him to a separate suit for the money paid by him, which should be recovered (if necessary) and refunded to him, subject to the provisions of paragraph 22.

 

  1. Certificate of sale.– When a sale of immovable property has become absolute, the Court shall grant a certificate stating the property sold and the name of the person who at the time of the sale, is declared to be the purchaser. This certificate should be in the prescribed form, and must bear the date of the confirmation of the sale and be stamped, at the expense of the purchaser, in conformity with the provisions of chapter II, Part B, and Article 18 of Schedule I-A of the Stamp Act, II of 1899, as amended by Punjab Act, VIII of 1922. When the terms of the certificate have been finally settled, the draft shall be signed by the Judge and placed with the record of the execution proceedings and the certificate granted to the purchaser (which should be in exact conformity with such draft) shall be engrossed on the stamp paper, free of copying charge. Instances have occurred where the purchaser has not taken his certificate, but has asked merely for a draft certificate to be appended to the file of execution, his idea being to use the draft certificate in proof of his title to the property purchased. Subordinate Courts are warned to guard against such subterfuges. No draft certificate should in any case be drawn up until the stamp duty required by law has been paid.

 

It should be noted that the title to the purchaser accrues from the date of the sale, though a certificate can only be granted after its confirmation.

 

  1. Copy of certificate of sale of immovable property to be sent to Registration office.– A copy of the certificate, whether the property sold be land or other immovable property, and without regard to the amount of the purchase-money, shall be sent to the Registering Officer, within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the whole or any part of the property is situated, to be filed in his Supplementary Book No. 1.

This copy should be drawn up in vernacular with permanent black ink.

 

  1. Court officials for conducting sales.– (i) Sales in execution of decree shall ordinarily be conducted by the Court Auctioneer. The District Judge may direct by special order that the sale in a particular case or cases shall be conducted by the Nazarat Staff.

 

(ii)           Official Receivers as Auctioneers.– In every district, save as otherwise prescribed, the Official Receiver should ordinarily be appointed Court Auctioneer.

 

(iii)         Security by Court Auctioneers.– Every Court Auctioneer shall give security in the sum of Rs. 2,000, over and above any security he may have given as Official Receiver, for the satisfactory discharge of his duties. This security shall be furnished to the satisfaction of the District Judge. The rules in Chapter 5, High Court Rules and Orders, Volume II, which govern the taking of security from Official Receivers shall, mutatis mutandis, apply also to Court Auctioners.

 

  1. Procedure for return of sale warrant.– (i) A warrant of sale shall not be delivered to the Court Auctioneer direct by the Court ordering the sale but shall be forwarded to him through the process-serving agency. After the sale the warrant and connected papers shall be returned by the Auctioneer to the process-serving Agency which shall forward it to the Court concerned.

(ii)           Sale under supervision of Court Auctioneers.– All sales of property whose estimated value exceeds Rs. 500 shall be conducted under the general supervision of the Court Auctioneer. Sales of property whose estimated value is Rs. 500 or less may be conducted by agents of the Court Auctioneer. In all cases the Court Auctioneer is responsible for proper compliance with all legal requirements and for all the acts of his agents.

 

The Court Auctioneer shall each morning, supply to each Court a date-sheet showing the sales already fixed by all Courts, in order that sales, which he has to attend may not be fixed at different places on the same day.

 

(iii)         Deposit of sale proceeds into Government treasury.– The Court Auctioneer shall himself deposit into the treasury all sums realised at auction sales conducted by him or his staff. All sums realised at sales conducted at places where there is a treasury shall be deposited into the treasury or the State Bank of Pakistan, as the case may be, on the first working day after the sale. The District Judge shall prescribe periods, within which the proceeds of sales conducted at other places shall be deposited. The periods so prescribed shall be reported to the High Court and shall be as short as possible.

 

  1. Government Commission.– (i) Commission at the following rates shall be deducted from the proceeds of sales under this Chapter:-

(a)           If this sale proceeds do not exceed rupees five thousand–at five per centum.

(b)          If the sale-proceeds exceed rupees five thousand–at five per centum on rupees five thousand and two and a half per centum on the remainder:

Provided that the maximum amount of commission deductable according to the aforesaid rates shall not exceed rupees five thousand.]

 

(ii)           If the sale is conducted by the Court Auctioneer, 80 per cent of the Commission will be paid to him and 20 per cent will be paid into the Treasury to the credit of Government. All incidental expenditure shall be met by the Auctioneer.

 

(iii)         If the sale is conducted by the Nazarat Staff, the whole of the commission shall be credited to Government and nothing shall be paid to the officer conducting the sale. In such cases, the expenses incurred in conducting the sale, including the cost of advertisement, must not exceed the amount of commission.

 

(iv)          Expenses of custody, etc.– The expenses incurred in the care, custody and keep of attached property (as taxed by the Court) shall be a first charge on the sale-proceeds thereof, after the deduction of the commission mentioned above.

 

  1. Charges of Court Auctioneers.– (i) No commission shall be paid on the proceeds of sales set aside for a material irregularity in publishing or conducting the sale. The commission on the proceeds of a sale set aside for any other cause shall be paid by the person at whose instance and for whose benefit the sale is set aside and the Court Auctioneer shall be entitled to his share of such commission.

 

(ii)           If a sale is set aside the purchase money shall be refunded in full to the Auction Purchaser unless it is set aside at his instance and for his benefit in which event the commission due under paragraph 21 shall be deducted from the sum to be refunded.

 

(iii)         Where a sale is set aside after the commission has been paid to the Court Auctioneer, the Court shall recover it from him and shall refund it to the Auction Purchaser if he is entitled to the refund of the whole of the purchase money. In such cases the Government share of the commission shall also be refunded.

(iv)         In cases in which auction sales are ordered, but not completed or do not take place at all, the Court auctioneer shall be paid only his actual expenses, provided that if there has been, in the opinion of the Court, clear negligence on the part of the auctioneer (e.g., failure to advertise, leading to absence of bidders) he will not be entitled to any compensation. The amount of actual expenses if held due under this rule will be determined by the Court and shall be paid by the decree-holder or the judgment-debtor as the Court may direct.

 

  1. Conduct of sale by Nazarat Staff.– (i) Where the District Judge directs that a sale be conducted by the Nazarat Staff, the proper officer to conduct the sale is–

(a)           where the sale is ordered by a Court of Small Causes-the Departmental Officer or such other officer as the Court may appoint;

 

(b)          where the sale is ordered by a Court other than a Court of Small Causes:

(1)           the Civil Nazir, for all sales ordered by Courts located at District Headquarters and for all other sales in which the value of the property to be paid sold is estimated to exceed Rs. 5,000;

(2)           the Naib Nazir of the Court ordering the sale for other sales.

 

(ii)          In every case in which the Civil Nazir is not required, under these directions or the directions of the District Judge, to conduct the sale in person, such sale may be conducted under the orders and upon the responsibility of the Civil Nazir, by a Naib Nazir deputed by him for the purpose.

 

(iii)         When it is desirable to have the sale conducted at the place where the attached property is situate, and the property is of small value, and a Nazir or Naib-Nazir is not available for the duty, an execution bailiff may be deputed to conduct the sale.

 

(iv)         A process-server shall not be employed to conduct a sale without the authority in writing of the Officer in charge of the Process-Serving Agency concerned. Such order shall not be made unless no other officer is available and the value of the property to be sold is estimated at Rs. 100 or less.

 

(v)          The District Judge may issue instructions, consistent with these directions, for the further regulation of the conduct of sales by the Civil Nazir and his establishment.

 

  1. Sale of guns or arms.– Whenever guns or other arms, in respect of which licenses have to be taken by purchasers under the Arms Act, 1878 (XI of 1878), [or the Arms Ordinance], 1965, and Rules thereunder, are sold by public auction in execution of decrees, the Court, directing the sale, shall give due notice to the Magistrate of the district of the names and addresses of the purchasers and of the time and place of the intended delivery to the purchasers of such arms, so that proper steps may be taken by the police to enforce the requirements of the Arms Act or the Ordinance.

 

  1. Sale of land.– For attachment and sale of land or interest in land see Chapter 12-M. of this Volume.

 

 

PART M — EXECUTION OF DECREES BY THE ATTACHMENT AND SALE OR TEMPORARY ALIENATION OF REVENUE-PAYING OR REVENUE-FREE LAND

 

(1)           In dealing with applications for the execution of decrees by the sale or temporary alienation of land, the provisions of the Punjab Alienation of Land Act, 1900 (XIII of 1900), and the Punjab Debtors Protection Act, 1936 (II of 1936) should not be overlooked. Attention is also drawn to section 170 of the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967 (XVII of 1967) and sections 68 to 71 of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908). It should be observed that land which has been built upon ceases to be land within the meaning of section 170 of the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967 (XVII of 1967) notwithstanding the fact that it is assessed to land revenue (see I.L.R. 1946; Lah. 52, A. I.R. 1944 Lah. 455)].

 

(2)           The following notification has been issued by the Punjab Government under section 68 of the Civil Procedure Code:-

“In exercise of the powers conferred by section 68 of the Code of Civil Procedure, the Governor of the Punjab is pleased to declare that throughout the Punjab, in all cases in which a Civil Court has ordered any land as defined in the Punjab Tenancy Act, 1887, or any interest in such land, to be sold, the execution of the decree shall be transferred to the Collector except when the decree is one for the recovery of money specifically charged on the land ordered to be sold”.

(Punjab Government, Revenue Department Notification No. 365-R dated 17th January 1939).

 

(3)           As laid down in section 69 of the Civil Procedure Code, the provisions of Schedule III of the Civil Procedure Code apply to cases in which the execution of the decree has been transferred to the Collector.

 

(4) The rules framed by Government under section 70, Civil Procedure Code, are reproduced below:-

 

RULES

 

  1. Definitions.– In these rules unless there is anything repugnant in the context-

(1)           “Collector” means-

(a)           the Collector of the district where the land ordered to be sold in execution of the decree is situated;

(b)           if the land is situated in more districts than one, the Collector of the district within the limits of which the judgment-debtor resides, or if he has no such residence, where the major portion of the land is situated;

(c)           if the judgment-debtor does not reside in any such district and the areas situated in different districts are equal, the Collector before whom, in the opinion of the Court, it is more convenient for the parties to the decree to attend.

(2)           “Court” means a civil Court of original, appellate or revisional jurisdiction in the Punjab.

 

(3)           “Decree” means a decree of a civil Court not being one for the recovery of money specially charged on land.

(4)           “Land” means land as specified in the notification issued by the Punjab Government under section 68 of the Code of Civil Procedure.

 

(5)           “Schedule” means Schedule III of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908.

 

  1. Transmission of copies of record.– (1) Immediately after an attachment has been made and an order passed that any land be sold in the execution of a decree, the Court shall transmit, by post, or in such other manner as may be most convenient, the following documents to the Collector:-

(i)            a copy of the application for execution certified by the Court to be correct;

(ii)           a certified copy of the relevant portion of the latest jamabandi showing the land attached;

(iii)         a copy of the warrant of attachment along with their report of attachment;

(iv)          a statement showing the extent, if any, to which the decree has been already executed and clearly setting forth what portion of the decree still remains to be satisfied, along with a statement showing, as clearly as possible, of which land and of what interests of the judgment-debtor in such land as far as they are known to the Court, sale has been ordered;

(v)           any other document which in the opinion of the Court would be necessary to enable the Collector to determine the land to which sale has been ordered and the rights and interests therein of the judgment-debtor.

 

(2)           The Court shall, if practicable, fix a date, which will ensure speedy disposal, for the appearance of the parties before the Collector. The date so fixed shall be noted on the record and communicated to such of the parties as may be present.

 

  1. Preparation of copies and documents.– The documents mentioned under sub-rule (1) of rule 2 shall be prepared and transmitted to the Collector free of all cost to the parties. The decree-holder shall file his application for execution in duplicate. Of these only one copy shall be stamped as required by the Court Fees Act, and the other shall be transmitted to the Collector after being certified by the Court to be correct. The copy of the warrant of attachment shall be prepared on a printed form, and the copy of the relevant portion of the jamabandi filed by the decree-holder with his application shall in original be sent to the Collector. The other statements shall be prepared by the establishment of the Court.

 

  1. Note in register of executions and consignment of record.– (1) The Court shall make a note in column No. 22 of Civil Register No. X(Register of Execution of Decrees) regarding the transmission and documents to the Collector and the date on which these were transmitted.

 

(2)           On receipt of the intimation from the Collector under rule 5, the Court shall attach it to the record of the case, which shall then be consigned to the record room, unless the execution is to be proceeded with in some other respect.

 

  1. Case to be registered.– The Collector shall notify the receipt of the documents to the Court, and shall register the decree in a book which may be prescribed departmentally for the purpose.

 

  1. Date of first hearing.– The case shall be taken up by the Collector on the date, if any, fixed by the Court under sub-rule (2) of rule 2:

Provided that if on the date so fixed, the Collector be not present at his headquarters, the file shall be put up before some other gazetted revenue officer subordinate to the Collector, or before an Assistant Collector of the first grade, if any, on duty at the headquarters, and he shall fix a fresh date for the appearance of the parties before the Collector which shall be noted and communicated as prescribed under sub-rule (2) of rule 2;

Provided further that if there be no such gazetted officer on duty in the station, the case shall come up before the Collector on his return to headquarters.

 

  1. Delegation of powers to Sub-Divisional Officer.– The Collector may by a written order make over, generally or in special cases, the execution of any decree transferred to him for execution to any Sub-Divisional Officer subordinate to him, who shall thereupon, in relation to the execution of that decree, act as and exercise all the powers conferred by these rules on the Collector. When the execution proceedings are over, the Sub-Divisional officer shall return the record of the proceedings to the Collector.

 

  1. Objections as to the liability of the land ordered to be sold and its attachment to be decided by the Court.– (1) All objections, whenever preferred regarding the liability to attachment of the land ordered to be sold, or the factum or procedure of its attachment shall be preferred to, and heard and decided by the Court transferring the decree.

 

(2)           If any objection of the nature mentioned under sub-clause (1) above is at any time, whether during the continuance of the proceedings or thereafter, made in writing before the Collector, he shall forward it in original to the Court by which the decree was transferred:

 

Provided that in case the objection is preferred during the continuance of the proceedings before the Collector, further proceedings shall be suspended for such time as may be sufficient to receive directions from the Court.

 

(3)           If after the transmission of the record under sub-rule (1) of rule 2 but prior to the confirmation of the sale or other arrangement under paragraphs 1 or 7 of the schedule, an objection about the liability of the land to, or the factum or procedure of, attachment is preferred directly before the Court transferring the decree or is received by it under sub-clause (2) above, the Court shall, if it decides to enquire into the objection, forthwith communicate its decision, to the Collector who shall cause further proceedings to be stayed pending the disposal of the objection.

 

  1. Court to intimate the result of objection to Collector.– After the objection is disposed of, the Court shall communicate the result to the Collector, and if in consequence thereof any further proceedings are to be taken in the case, the Court shall, if practicable, fix a date for the appearance of the parties before the Collector, notifying the same in the manner prescribed in sub-rule (2) of rule 2.

 

  1. Result of objection to determine further proceedings.– (1) If the objection succeeds and the entire land is released from attachment, the Collector shall dismiss the execution case, and after, forwarding a non-satisfaction certificate to the Court he shall consign the record to the Record Room.

 

(2)           If the attachment of the whole or a part of the land is upheld the Collector on receipt of the information shall proceed to complete the proceedings in accordance with law.

 

  1. Procedure where the same land is ordered to be sold in two or more decrees.– (1) If the same land is ordered to be sold in two or more decrees transferred to the Collector under sub-rule (1) of rule 2, the following procedure shall with regard to such land be observed:-

 

(i)            If all the orders of sale have been received from the same Court, the Collector shall enquire from the Court in which particular case the main proceedings are to be held.

 

(ii)          If the orders of sale have been received from different Courts of the same grade, the main proceedings shall be held in the case in which attachment was first effected, and an intimation about this fact shall be sent to all the other Courts.

 

(iii)         If the orders of sale have been received from Courts of different grades the main proceedings shall be held in the case received from the Court of the highest grade, and an intimation about this fact shall be sent to all the other Courts.

 

(2)           In the above-mentioned cases though the proceedings are to be held in one case only, the result shall ensure for the benefit of all other cases as well.

 

(3)           If on account of the decree-holder’s default, or any adjustment of the decree or any order from the Court, the case in which proceedings are being held is dismissed and such a result does not affect the connected case or cases, the Collector shall start or continue proceedings, as the case may be, in the latter cases in accordance with the above procedure.

 

  1. Procedure where land is within the jurisdiction of two or more Collectors.– (1) If the land to be proceeded against under these rules is situated within the jurisdiction of more Collectors than one, the Collector holding these proceedings shall forthwith intimate the factum of his having taken cognizance of the case to every other Collector within whose jurisdiction any part of the said land is situated.

 

(2)           If at any time after the Collector has started proceedings under sub-rule (1) above, any one of the other Collectors receives under sub-rule (1) of rule 2 any decree for execution by sale of the same land, he shall after stating the above circumstances forthwith return the papers to the Court from which the decree has been received.

 

(3)           If prior to the receipt of the intimation under sub-clause (1) above, any other Collector has also started proceedings against the same land, the following procedure shall be adopted:-

 

(a)           If there is any difference in the areas involved in the different cases, the case involving a larger area shall proceed and the proceedings in the other case or cases shall be stopped.

 

(b)          If there is no difference in the areas involved in different cases, the case in which proceedings were first started by the Collector seized thereof shall proceed, and the proceedings in the other case or cases shall be stopped.

 

(c)           The Collector dealing with the case the proceedings of which have be stopped under sub-clause (a) or (b) above, shall after intimating the circumstances to the Court concerned, and issuing a non-satisfaction certificate, dismiss the execution case.

 

  1. Enquiry by Collector.– The Collector shall make a summary enquiry in terms of paragraph 2 of the schedule, with a view to finding out if all the liabilities of the judgment-debtor can be discharged without selling all the land available for the purpose.

 

  1. Proceedings to be drawn up.– As soon as the enquiry contemplated by rule 13 is completed, the Collector shall draw up the proceedings in English setting forth the steps taken by him in this connection with the result of his enquiry.

 

  1. Sale of land.– If the Collector comes to the conclusion that all the liabilities of the judgment-debtor cannot be discharged without the sale of the entire land available for the purpose, he shall record his opinion and proceed to sell the land ordered to be sold.

 

  1. Arrangement Short of sale.– (1) If the Collector comes to the conclusion that all the liabilities of the judgment-debtor can be discharged without the sale of the entire land available for the purpose, he shall record his opinion with the reasons therefor, and shall proceed as laid down in paragraph 3 or 5 of the Schedule.

 

(2)           The Collector shall ordinarily follow the procedure laid down in paragraph 5 of the Schedule, unless the summary enquiry held under rule 13 points to conclusion that no complicated question requiring to be determined by the civil Court is likely to arise.

 

  1. Tenancy Act procedure to be followed.– (1) In holding the enquiry under rule 13 the Collector shall, in so far as it may be possible, follow the procedure laid down for the guidance of Revenue Officers under the Punjab Tenancy Act, 1887.

 

(2)           In the proceedings contemplated by sub-rule (1) above, the decree-holder, the judgment-debtor and such other creditors of the judgment-debtor, if any, as may have responded to the notice under paragraph 3 of the schedule shall be given an opportunity of leading such evidence oral or documentary, as they may wish to produce.

 

  1. Powers of Collector.– (1) The Collector dealing with a case under these rules shall have all the powers and be subject to all the limitations regarding sale, mortgage, lease or other temporary alienation of land, the awarding of costs incurred by the parties as also costs of adjournments and the dismissal of the case, as may for the time being be exercisable by or imposed on the Court ordering the sale, and shall be competent to pass any order incidental or relating to the execution of the decree which but for the transfer of the case could have been passed by the Court.

 

(2)           Fees for the services of processes and fees for proclamations issued under these rules shall be levied according to scale laid down for processes and proclamations issued by a revenue Court. These fees shall in the first instance be paid by the decree-holder, or if the process or proclamation is ordered to be issued at the instance of any other person, by such person and be treated as costs in the case.

 

  1. Proclamation of sale by public auction.– (1) When any land is to be sold under these rules, the Collector shall cause a proclamation of the intended sale to be made in the language of the Court.

 

(2)           Such proclamation shall be drawn after notice to the decree-holder and the judgment-debtor, and besides stating the time and place of the intended sale, it shall specify as fairly and accurately as possible–

 

(a)           the land to be sold;

 

(b)          the revenue assessment on such land;

 

(c)           any encumbrance to which the land is liable;

 

(d)          the amount for the recovery of which the sale is ordered;

 

(e)           the number of lots in which the Collector proposes to sell the land, if he considers that the land should not be sold in one lot, and the reserved price fixed for each lot;

 

(f)           every other thing which the Collector considers material for a purchaser to know in order to judge the nature and the value of the property.

 

Note:- If the area to which the encumbrance mentioned in clause (c) attached is more than the area mentioned in clause (a), whole of the area shall be specified in the proclamation.

 

(3)           For purposes of ascertaining the matters to be specified in the proclamation the Collector may summon any person whom he considers necessary to summon, and may examine him in respect of any such matters and require him to produce any document in his possession or power relating thereto.

 

  1. (1) The collector may subsequent to the drawing up of the proclamation for good and sufficient cause modify it in any respect.

 

(2)           Where the sum total of the decretal amount to be realized and the encumbrance on the land to be sold is less than the value of the land, the Collector, when making proposals regarding the sale in lots, shall take into account only that proportion of the encumbrance which appertains to the lot or lots proposed for sale. In order, however, to give information to the intending purchaser he shall in the proclamation issued under the last rule declare the whole amount of the encumbrance and the entire property to which it pertains.

 

  1. Publication of proclamation.– (1) The proclamation drawn up under the above rules shall be published by beat of drum or other customary mode at some place on or adjacent to the land to be sold. A copy of the proclamation shall be affixed on or near the land to be sold, and in the Office of the Collector as also in the Court-house of the Court issuing the order for sale:

 

Provided that if the Collector considers it necessary such proclamation shall also be published in the official gazette or in any local newspaper or in both, and the cost of such publication shall be deemed to be part of the costs of the sale.

 

(2)           Where the land is divided into lots for the purpose of being sold separately, it shall not be necessary to make a separate proclamation for each lot unless proper notice of the same, in the opinion of the Collector, cannot otherwise be given.

 

  1. Time of sale.– No sale shall, without the consent in writing of the judgment-debtor, take place until after the expiration of 30 days calculated from the date on which the copy of the proclamation has been affixed in the office of the Collector.

 

  1. Sale by whom conducted.– Sale under these rules shall be conducted by the Collector in person or by an Assistant Collector generally or specially empowered by him in this behalf.

 

  1. Adjournment of sale.– The Collector may in his discretion adjourn a sale ordered by him to a specified day and hour, and any other officer conducting such sale may also in his discretion adjourn the sale recording his reasons for such adjournment. When a sale is adjourned under this rule for a longer period than 15 days, a fresh proclamation shall be made unless the judgment-debtor consents in writing to waive it:

 

Provided that the Collector may dispense with the consent of any judgment-debtor who has failed to attend in answer to the notice issued under rule 19(2).

  1. Stoppage of sale.– A sale held under these rules be stopped if before the lot put up for sale is knocked down, the amount of the decree and costs including the costs of the sale are tendered to the officer conducting the sale, or proof is given to his satisfaction that the amount of such decree and costs has been paid to the Collector ordering the sale.

 

  1. Officer conducting sale not to bid or purchase.– No officer or other person having any duty to perform in connection with any sale under these rules shall directly or indirectly bid for acquiring, or attempt to acquire, any interest in the land to be sold.

 

  1. Co-sharer’s bid to be preferred.– Where the land sold is an undivided share of a larger area and two or more persons of whom one is co-sharer in that area make the same bid, the co-sharer’s bid shall prevail as against the bid of the other person.

 

  1. Purchase money to be set off against decree-money.– If the decree-holder purchases the land put up for sale, the purchase money and the amount due on the decree may, subject to the rights of the other decree-holders, if any, to claim ratable distribution, be set off against one another, and the Collector executing the decree shall enter satisfaction of the decree in whole or in part, as the case may be.

 

  1. Deposit by purchaser and resale on default.– As soon as a bid made under these rules is accepted, the person making the bid shall pay to the officer conducting the sale a sum equal to 25 per cent of the amount of his purchase money. In default of the purchaser’s making such a deposit, the land shall forthwith be resold:

 

Provided that where the decree-holder is the purchaser and is entitled to set off the purchase money under rule 28 above, the Collector may dispense with this deposit.

 

  1. Payment in full of purchase money.– The balance of the purchase money left after the deposit of 25 per cent made under rule 29 shall be paid by the purchaser to the Collector before his office closes on the 15th day from the sale of the land:

 

Provided that in calculating the amount to be so paid to the Collector the purchaser shall have the advantage of any set off to which he may be entitled under rule 28 above.

 

  1. Procedure on default of payment.– (1) If the purchaser does not pay the full amount of the purchase money within the period mentioned in the last preceding rule, the deposit made under rule 29 may, if the Collector thinks fit, after defraying the expenses of the sale, be forfeited to the Government.

 

(2)           In a case covered by sub-rule (1) above, the land shall be resold subject to the issue of a fresh proclamation in the manner and for the period herein before prescribed for sale, and the defaulting purchaser shall forfeit all claims to the land or to any part of the sum for which it may subsequently be sold.

 

  1. Deficiency in sale price of resale.– Any deficiency in price which may occur on a resale under rule 31 and all expenses attending such resale shall be certified to the Collector by the officer conducting the sale, and shall at the instance of the decree-holder or the judgment-debtor, be recoverable from the defaulting purchaser under the provisions relating to the execution of a decree for the payment of money.

 

  1. Application to set aside sale on deposit.– (1) Where land has been sold in accordance with these rules, the judgment-debtor or any person holding an interest therein by virtue of a title acquired before the sale may within 30 days of date of the sale apply to have it set aside on his depositing with the Collector—

 

(a)           for a payment to the purchaser a sum equal to 5 per cent of the purchase money together with the amount realised as commission from him under rule 40;

(b)          for payment to the decree-holder the amount specified in the proclamation may have been received by the decree-holder, sale was ordered less any amount which, since the date of such proclamation may have been received by the decree-holder.

 

(2)           Where a person applies under the rule next following to set aside the sale he shall not unless he withdraws that application be entitled to make or prosecute his application under this rule.

 

(3)           Nothing in this rule shall relieve the judgment-debtor from any liability he may be under in respect of costs and interests not covered by the proclamation of sale.

 

(4)           If the application to have the sale set aside is disallowed, the deposit made under this rule shall be refunded to the applicant.

 

  1. Application to set aside sale on ground of irregularity or fraud.– In case of sale of land under these rules the decree-holder, the judgment-debtor or any person entitled to share in a ratable distribution of assets or whose interests are affected by the sale, may within 30 days of the date of the sale apply to the Collector to set it aside on the ground of a material irregularity or fraud in publishing or conducting it:

Provided that no such sale shall be set aside on the ground of irregularity or fraud unless the Collector is satisfied that the applicant has sustained some injury by reason of such irregularity or fraud.

 

  1. Application by purchaser to set aside sale on ground of judgment-debtor having no saleable interest.– The purchaser at any such sale may within thirty days of the date of the sale apply to the Collector to set it aside on the ground that the judgment-debtor had no saleable interest in the land.

 

  1. Sale when to become absolute and power of Collector to order resale.– Where no application is made under rules 33, 34 or 35, or where such application is made and disallowed, the Collector shall make an order confirming the sale, and thereupon the sale shall become absolute:

 

Provided that if in any case the Collector is of opinion that the price offered is inadequate, he may refuse to confirm the sale, and the land shall thereupon, subject to the provisions made in these rules, be again put up for sale;

 

Provided further that no order shall be passed under this proviso unless notice has been given to all persons affected, and their objections, if any, heard.

 

  1. Setting aside of sale.– Where an application is made under rules 33, 34 or 35 and allowed, the Collector shall make an order setting aside the sale:

 

Provided that no order shall be made unless notice of the application has been given to the persons affected thereby and their objections, if any, heard.

 

  1. Bar of civil suit.– No suit to set aside an order made under rules 36 and 37 shall be brought by any person against whom such order is made.

 

  1. Return of purchase money in certain cases.– Where a sale is set aside under rule 36 or 37 the purchaser shall be entitled—

 

(a)           in the case of a sale set aside on an application under rule 33 to an order sanctioning his withdrawal of the deposit made under that rule;

 

(b)          in case of a sale set aside on application under rule 34 to an order for a refund of he commission, if any, deducted under rule 40.

 

  1. Commission fee, how to be realised.– (1) Commission fee at the rate of 1 per cent shall be levied on all sales held under these rules.

 

(2)           The Commission fee shall be realised—

 

(a)           where no deposit is required under rule 29 by the person conducting the sale from the decree-holder, before he is declared the purchaser;

 

(b)          where a deposit is required under rule 29 by deduction by the Collector from the deposit; and

 

(3)           when realised, the commission fee shall be credited to Government.

 

  1. Grant of sale certificate.– Where a sale of land has become absolute, the Collector shall grant a certificate specifying–

(i)            the land sold;

 

(ii)          the name of the person who is declared to be the purchaser;

 

(iii)         the encumbrance, if any, and the entire area to which it attaches; and

 

(iv)         the date on and the amount for which the sale has taken place. Such certificate shall bear the date when the sale becomes absolute.

 

  1. Procedure for delivering possession of land.– In delivering possession to a purchaser or transferee in any other form, the Collector shall follow the following procedure:-

 

(a)           Where the land is in the occupancy of the judgment-debtor or of some person on his behalf, or of some person claiming under a title created by the judgment-debtor subsequent to the attachment of the land, the Collector shall on the application of the purchaser, or transferee, order delivery to be made by putting such person or any person whom he may appoint to receive delivery on his behalf in possession of the land and if need be by removing any person who refuses to vacate the same.

 

(b)          Where the land is in the occupancy of a tenant or other person entitled to occupy the same, the Collector shall, on the application of the purchaser or transferee order delivery to be made by affixing a copy of the certificate or order in some conspicuous place on the property, and proclaiming to the occupant by beat of drum or other customary mode at some convenient place, that the interest of the judgment-debtor in its entirety or to a limited extent, as the case may be, has been transferred to the auction purchaser or the other transferee.

 

  1. Objections as to liability of land and delivery of possession.– Objections regarding the liability of the land, other than that the sale of which has been ordered, by the Court, for the satisfaction of the judgment-debtor’s debts, and objections regarding the delivery of possession shall be made to and decided by the Collector.

 

  1. Resistance or obstruction to possession of land.– (1) Where the person entitled under the order of the Collector passed under these rules to the possession of land as an auction purchaser or transferee in any other form is resisted or obstructed by any person in obtaining possession of land, he may within thirty days of the resistance or obstruction make an application to the Collector about such resistance or obstruction.

 

(2)           The Collector may of his own accord initiate proceedings under this rule.

 

(3)           The Collector shall fix a date for investigating the matter, and shall summon the party against whom the application is made or who is reported to have offered resistance or obstruction to appear and answer the allegation.

 

  1. Resistance or obstruction by judgment-debtor.– Where the Collector is satisfied that the resistance or obstruction was occasioned without any just cause by the judgment-debtor or some other person at his instigation, he shall direct that the applicant be put into the possession of the land, and where he applicant is still resisted or obstructed in obtaining possession, the Collector may also at the instance of the applicant order the judgment-debtor or any other person acting at his instigation to be detained in the prison for a term which may extend to 30 days.

 

  1. Resistance or obstruction by bona fide claimant.– Where the Collector is satisfied that the resistance or obstruction was occasioned by any person other than the judgment-debtor claiming in good faith to be in possession of the land on his own account or on account of some person other than the judgment-debtor, the Collector shall make an order dismissing the application.

 

  1. Application by a person other than the judgment-debtor when dispossessed.– Where any person other than the judgment-debtor, whose case does not fall under rule 45 is dispossessed of land under these rules, he may make an application to the Collector complaining of such dispossession.

 

(2)           The Collector shall fix a date for investigating the matter and shall summon the party against whom the application is made to appear and answer the same.

 

  1. Decision of the application.– Where the Collector is satisfied that the applicant was in possession of the land on his own account or on account of some person other than the judgment-debtor, he shall direct that the applicant be put into possession of the land. In case the Collector comes to a contrary decision, the application shall be dismissed.
  2. Rules not applicable to transferee lite pendente.– Nothing in rule 46, 47 and 48 shall apply to resistance or obstruction by a person to whom the judgment-debtor has transferred the land after its attachment by the Court, in case the resistance or obstruction relates to such land, or after the initiation of proceedings under paragraph 2 of the schedule in case the resistance or obstruction relates to any land proceeded against under that paragraph but not attached by the Court.

 

  1. Order conclusive subject to civil suit.– Any party, not being a judgment-debtor, against whom an order is made under rules 45, 46 and 48 may within one year of the date of such order institute a suit in a civil Court to establish the right which he claims to the present possession of the land, but subject to the result of such suit, if any, the Collector’s order passed under these rules shall be conclusive.

 

  1. Costs how to be adjusted.– If any costs are allowed under these rules, the amount so awarded shall be added to the decretal sum in case the order be in favour of the decree-holder, and be deducted therefrom in case the order be against him.

 

  1. Information about and orders regarding land outside the Collector’s jurisdiction how to be collected and executed.– (1) The Collector seized of a case under these proceedings shall deal with it as if the entire land ordered to be sold or otherwise to be dealt with were situated within his jurisdiction.

 

(2)           If the Collector is of the opinion that it is necessary to obtain any information regarding the judgment-debtor’s land lying within the jurisdiction of any other Collector, he shall make a requisition in this behalf, and the Collector of the district concerned shall supply him with the requisite information.

 

(3)           If the Collector passes any order regarding any land situated within the jurisdiction of any other Collector, he shall communicate it to the latter, who shall execute it as if it had been passed by himself.

  1. Consignment of record.– After the Collector has completed his proceedings and informed the Court as contemplated by paragraph 9 of the schedule, the record shall be consigned to the record room.

 

  1. Result of execution to be noted in Court’s register and procedure of Court.– On receipt of the information under rule 53, the Court shall make a note in column No. 22 of civil register No. X (Register of Execution of Decrees), showing the date of the receipt of the intimation and, if necessary, after sending for the record of the execution case from the record room shall proceed in the manner prescribed in paragraph 9 (3) of the schedule.

 

  1. Delegation of power by Collector.– For the purpose of these rules, the Collector may make over to any Assistant Collector of the first grade any of the powers and duties conferred and imposed upon the collector with the exception of the following:-

 

(1)           Power to let or mortgage under paragraph 1 (b) of the schedule.

 

(2)           Power to order sale under paragraph 1 (c) or paragraph 8 of the schedule.

 

(3)           Power to take action under paragraph 3 or paragraph 5 of the schedule.

 

(4)           Power to let, mortgage or order direct management under paragraph 7(1)(b) of the schedule.

 

(5)           Power to raise funds for and discharge encumbrances under paragraph 7(3) of the schedule.

 

(6)           Power to confirm sale under rule 36.

 

(7)           Power to set aside sale under rule 37.

  1. Appeals.– (1) An appeal shall lie under these rules to the Collector, when the order is passed by an Assistant Collector, and to the Commissioner when the original order is passed by the Collector:

Provided that the order would have been appealable, had it been passed by a civil Court executing the decree.

 

(2)           A second appeal shall lie from an appellate order passed by the Collector to the Commissioner, and from an appellate order passed by the Commissioner to the Board of Revenue on grounds on which a second civil appeal would have been competent had the appellate order been passed by a civil Court.

 

(3)           No appeal shall lie except as provided in these rules.

 

  1. Period of appeals.– The period of limitation for an appeal under the foregoing rule shall be as follows:-

 

(a)           When the appeal lies to the collector, 30 days.

 

(b)          When the appeal lies to the Commissioner, 60 days.

 

(c)           When the appeal lies to the Board of Revenue, 90 days.

 

  1. Revisional powers of the Financial Commissioner.– The Financial Commissioner may, at any time, call for the record of any case, which has been decided under these rules by an officer subordinate to him and in which no appeal lies to him or, if an appeal lies, it has not been preferred and the period of limitation has expired, and if the said officer appears-

 

(a)           to have exercised a jurisdiction not vested in him by law; or

 

(b)           to have failed to exercise a jurisdiction so vested; or

 

(c)           to have acted in the exercise of his jurisdiction illegally or with material irregularity;

the Board of Revenue may make such orders as it may think fit.

 

  1. Procedure for the disposal of appeals and applications for revision.–

(1)           An appeal or application for revision filed under these rules shall be filed, heard and disposed of in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Code of Civil Procedure as far as it may be applicable.

 

(2)           It should be borne in mind that the powers of Civil Courts to deal with objections under section 47, Civil Procedure Code, or Order XXI, Rule 58, as amended by Lahore High Court, are the same irrespective of whether the objections are received by the Court direct or through the Collector under rule 8 of the Government rules framed under section 70, of the Civil Procedure Code.

 

(3)           Objections under section 9 of the Debtor’s Protection Act are to be decided by the Civil Court and not the collector.

(A.I.R. 1941 Lah. 225 Lakhmi Chand v. Aulia Khan.)

 

[Note IN rule 58 the words “Financial Commissioner” shall mean “The Board of Revenue, Punjab”.]

 

 

PART N —-EXECUTION OF DECREES AGAINST AGRICULTURISTS

 

  1. Property exempt from attachment.– The following property of an agriculturist is exempt from attachment and sale:-

 

(a)           The necessary wearing apparel, cooking vessels, beds and beddings of the judgment-debtor, his wife and children, and such personal ornaments as, in accordance with religious usage, cannot be parted with by any woman. (Section 60 (1) (a) of the Code).

 

(b)          Implements of husbandry and such cattle and seed-grain as may, in the opinion of the Court, be necessary to enable him to earn his livelihood as an agriculturist and such portion of agricultural-produce or any class of agricultural-produce as may have been declared by the Provincial Government to be free from liability under Section 61. (Vide also clause (b) of the proviso to Section 60 (1) of the Code).

 

(c)           Where the judgment- debtor is liable to pay land-revenue, so much of the produce of the land as the Collector thinks necessary for seed-grain and the subsistence, until the harvest next following, of the judgment-debtor, his family and cattle exempted under head (b) (Section [83 of the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967], read with Section 88 of the Punjab Tenancy Act and Section 60 (1) (p) of the Code of Civil Procedure). Under Section 61 of the Civil Procedure Code, the Punjab Government has declared that, in the case of agriculturists, the judgment-debtor’s entire fodder crops, including gram, oats, chari, maize and guara, one third or 20 maunds, whichever is greater, of food-grains, and one third of all other crops shall, subject to the provisions of clauses (b) and (p) of sub-section (1) of Section 60 of the Civil Procedure Code and of the proviso to [Section 83 of the Land Revenue Act, 1967], be exempted from liability to attachment or sale in the execution of a decree, for the purpose of providing, until the next harvest, for the due cultivation of land and for the support of the judgment-debtor and his family.

 

(d)          Houses and other buildings (with the materials and the sites thereof and the land immediately appurtenant thereto and necessary for their enjoyment) belonging to an agriculturist and not let on rent or lent to others or left vacant for a period of a year or more.

 

(See Section 60 (1) (c) of the Code of Civil Procedure and Section 35 of the Punjab Relief of Indebtedness Act).

 

(e)           Standing crops except cotton and sugarcane. (Section 10 of the Punjab Debtors’ Protection Act).

 

  1. Land and trees exempt from sale.– According to Section 16 of the Punjab Land Alienation Act, 1900, no land belonging to a member of an agricultural tribe, notified under that Act, can be sold in execution of any decree or order of a Civil or Revenue Court.

 

Standing trees apart from the land on which they stand cannot be sold. (Section 10 of the Punjab Debtors’ Protection Act).

 

  1. Exemption of ancestral immovable property.– Attention is invited to the provision of section 9 of the Punjab Debtors’ Protection Act which lays down that ancestral immovable property in the hands of a subsequent holder shall not be liable in the execution of a decree or order of Court relating to a debt incurred by any of his predecessors-in-interest. This rule, however, is to be applied only “When custom is the rule of decision in regard to secession of immovable property.” It is not applicable when the debt has been expressly charged by way of a mortgage.

 

  1. Attachment and sale to be carried out through Collector.– The attachment and sale of the land and its produce will be carried out by an order addressed by the Civil Court to the Collector or such Revenue-Officer as he may appoint in this behalf under Section [170 of the Punjab Land Revenue Act, 1967,] and subject to the rules made thereunder and the provisions of the Code contained in Order XXI, Rules 44, 45, 74 and 75.

 

 

Part O—- EXECUTION OF DECREES AGAINST PERSONS IN MILITARY SERVICE …….. [OMITTED]

 

 

 

PART P —- RECEIPTS FOR PROPERTY REALISED OR RECOVERED OR RECOVERED IN EXECUTION OF DECREES

 

  1. Receipts.– Receipt should invariably be furnished by decree-holders for money paid or goods delivered through the Courts in satisfaction of decrees.

 

  1. Payment by debtor.– Sums tendered by a judgment-debtor in payment or part payment of a decree shall be received by the Court which framed the decree or to which the decree has been sent for execution, whether the judgment-creditor has taken out execution or not; and whether, in case he has taken out execution, he is actually in attendance at the Court-house or not.

 

  1. Payment to decree-holder when present.– If the judgment-creditor is in attendance at the time of such tender (whether for the purpose of prosecuting his execution or not), the money so received by the Court shall be made over to him upon his giving a receipt, duly stamped if the sum so paid exceeds rupees twenty, and the receipt taken shall be filed with the proceedings.

 

  1. Amount to be deposited when decree-holder is not present.– If the judgment-creditor is not in attendance the sum paid in by the judgment-debtor shall be made over by the Court to the Nazir, who shall forthwith deposit it in the Treasury, at the Sadar or Tahsil, as the case may be, and notify to the Court the number under, and date on, which the sum has been entered in the deposit register. A corresponding entry will be made in the Court’s record:

Provided that if the Treasury is closed for business when the money is paid into Court, it should be placed in the Nazir’s Cash Chest, which should be lodged in the outer room of the Treasury, if it is open, as provided in Order 4 (2), of the Punjab Treasury Manual, 2nd edition, page 2, and if it is closed, the Presiding Officer of the Court must make other suitable arrangements for its safe custody.

 

  1. Receipt to be given to debtor by Court.– An unstamped acknowledgment will, in every case, be given to the judgment-debtor, by the officer to whom the payment is made, for any sum paid into Court under the preceding paragraphs.

 

  1. Payment to decree-holder of the sum deposited.– When the judgment-creditor appears and claims the sum received by the Court, such Court shall give the claimant (after identification) a cheque on the Treasury, payable to his order, for the amount, and shall note thereon the date of deposit and the number in the deposit register. An unstamped receipt, particularising the amount of the cheque, its date and number, together with the deposit number and date, shall be taken from the judgment-creditor in acknowledgment of such cheque, and this receipt will remain on the record, and will be deemed sufficient to mark the finality of the proceedings.

 

  1. Payment to decree-holder of the sum deposited.– The cheque mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall be presented to the Treasury Officer for payment, and the receipt of the payee, endorsed thereon, shall be sufficient acquittance for the Treasury Officer, who will forward such endorsed cheque to the Accountant-General, as his voucher for the withdrawal of the amount from deposit.

 

  1. Stamp on receipt.– When the amount exceeds rupees twenty the receipt will be stamped at the expense of the judgment-creditor.

 

  1. Dakhalnama does not require stamp.– The practice prevailing in some districts of requiring the dakhalnama or acknowledgment, taken from a decree-holder when he has been placed in possession of immovable property in execution of a decree, to be stamped, is not authorized either by the Court Fees Act or by the Stamp Act. The Dakhalnama, not being an acknowledgment of the receipt of money or other moveable property, is not a receipt within the meaning of Section 2 (23) of the Stamp Act, and does not require to be stamped.

 

 

 

PART Q —- RESISTANCE TO  EXECUTION

 

  1. Resistance by judgment-debtor or by some person on his behalf or at his instigation.– If the holder of a decree for the possession of immovable property, or the purchaser of any such property sold in execution of a decree, is resisted or obstructed by any person, and the decree-holder complains of such resistance or obstruction, Order XXI, Rules 97 to 99, prescribe the procedure to be followed.

 

In proper cases the provision of Section 74 of the Code of Civil procedure may also be availed of.

 

According to Order XXI, Rule 98, Civil Procedure Code, as amended by the Lahore High Court, a Court can now take action not only when the obstruction was occasioned by the judgment-debtor himself or by some person at his instigation but also when it was caused by any one “on his behalf.” It has also been provided that the detention ordered in this rule shall be at public expense. The provision as to limitation is contained in Article 167 of Schedule I to Act IX of 1908 which provides a period of thirty days from the date of resistance or obstruction.

 

  1. Resistance by others.– Order XXI, Rule 99, provides for cases where the resistance or obstruction has been occasioned by any person other than the judgment-debtor, claiming in good faith to be in possession on his own account or on account of some person other than the judgment-debtor.

 

  1. Restoration of possession to a person who was in possession not on account of debtor but was dispossessed in execution. If any person not bound by the decree should be dispossessed of any property in execution, whether by the decree-holder or by the purchaser in execution, he may apply to the Court executing the decree under Order XXI, Rule 100, if he disputes the right of such decree-holder or purchaser to be put in possession. Where the Court is satisfied that the applicant was in possession of the property on his own account or on account of some person other than the judgment-debtor, it should, under Rule 101, direct that the applicant be put into possession of the property. Attention is drawn to this provision, as in such cases it is not uncommon for a Court to refuse to make any inquiry and to refer the applicant to a regular suit. The limitation for such applications is thirty days from the date of dispossession (see Article 165, Schedule I to Act IX of 1908).

 

 

 

 

PART  R — COSTS IN EXECUTION PROCEEDINGS

 

 

  1. Costs of pleaders.–Unless there is any reason to the contrary, costs of pleaders in execution cases should be allowed on the scale laid down for miscellaneous proceedings in Chapter 16, “Legal Practitioners,” Part B.

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

  1. [Omitted].

 

 

PART  S—- RECIPROCAL EXECUTION OF DECREES BY COURTS IN PAKISTAN AND COURTS IN FOREIGN COUNTRIES

 

  1. References.– The law on the subject of execution of decrees of Courts in Pakistan to which the provisions relating to execution do not extend and the decrees passed by Courts in the United Kingdom or any other reciprocating territory is contained in section 43 and section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908).

 

  1. Reciprocity of execution between Courts in United Kingdom and certain foreign Courts.– As regards execution of decrees passed by Courts in United Kingdom or any other reciprocating territory, the provisions of Section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908) as amended, be carefully noted and followed.

 

  1. Reciprocity between Courts in Pakistan and foreign Courts.– The following countries have been declared by the Government of Pakistan to be reciprocating territories within the meaning of section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure:

 

S .No. Name of the country. No. of Notification etc.
1 United Kingdom No. 11(5)/56, dated,  26th July, 1958
2 Fiji F.227/48-Law, dated 3.6.194 Gazette of Pakistan Part-I,  dated 10.6.1949, Page 275.
3 Singapore F.12/52-Sol,dated 22.4.1954, Gazette of Pakistan, Part-I, dated 30.4.1954. Page 106.
4 Australian Capital Territory F.12/55-Sol, dated 11.4.1957 Gazette of Pakistan Part-I, dated 11.4.1957, Page 174.
5 New Zealand including the Cook Islands (including Niue) and the Trust Territory of Eastern Samoa F.11(2)/56-Sol,dated 3.11.1958 Gazette of Pakistan Part-I,dated 7.11.1958, Page 455.
6 Northern Territory of  Australia S.R.O. 403, dated 22.8.1959,Gazette of Pakistan, Part-I, dated 22.8.1959, Page 425
7 Australian State of Victoria S.R.O. 1067(K)/70 dated 21.9.1970 Gazette of Pakistan,  Part-I, dated 9.10.1970, Page 870.
8 States of Queensland and Western Australia S.R.O. 482(I)/73,dated 2.4.1973 Gazette of Pakistan Extraordinary Part-II, dated 2.4.1973, Page 550.
9 State of Kuwait S.R.O. 567(I)/83,dated 6.6.1983, Gazette of Pakistan Extraordinary Part-II, dated 6.6.1983, Page 769
10 Republic of Turkey S.R.O. 477(I)/85,dated 20.5.1985 Gazette of Pakistan Extraordinary Part-II, dated 21.5.1985, Page 513.

 

 

 

APPENDEX

( NOTIFICATIONS )

MINISTRY OF LAW

Karachi, the 26th July 1958

 

  1. No.11(5)/56-Sol, dated 26th July 1958. The Government of the United Kingdom, with the concurrence of the Government of Pakistan has made the following order providing for the execution in the United Kingdom of the decrees of Superior Courts in Pakistan on the basis of reciprocity. The Order is published for general information-

“STATUTORY INSTRUCTIONS”

1958 No. 141

JUDGMENTS

 

The Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgment (Pakistan Order, 1958. Made…………………28th January, 1958. At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 28th Day of January, 1958.

 

PRESENT

 

The Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty in Council.

Her majesty by virtue and in exercise of the powers conferred on Her by section one of the Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act, 1933(a) and of all other powers enabling Her, is pleased by and with the advice of her Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby ordered as follows:

 

  1. This Order may be cited as the Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgment(Pakistan) Order, 1958.

 

  1. The Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments (Pakistan) Order, 1953(b), is hereby revoked provided that in relation to judgments given before the date of this order the High Courts of Dacca and Lahore, the Chief Court at Karachi and Judicial Commissioner’s Courts at Peshawar and Quetta shall continue to be deemed to be Superior Courts for the purposes of part 1 of this Act.

 

  1. Part 1 of the Act shall extend to all the territories of Pakistan.

 

  1. The following Courts of Pakistan shall be deemed Superior Courts for the purposes of Part 1 of the Act, that is to say:-

 

(a)           The Supreme Court of Pakistan and all the High Courts.

 

(b)          All District Courts.

 

(c)           All other Courts whose civil jurisdiction is subject to no pecuniary limit provided that the judgment sought to be registered under the Act is sealed with a seal showing that the jurisdiction of the Court is subject to no pecuniary limit.

 

W.G. Agnew.

 

EXPLANATORY NOTE

 

(This Note is not part of the Order, but is included to indicate its general purport)

 

The purpose of this Order is to revise the list of Courts of Pakistan deemed to be Superior Courts for the purpose of Part 1 of the Act, and to continue the application of Part 1 of the Act in respect of judgments of Courts of Pakistan which have ceased to exist.

 

MINISTRY OF LAW AND LABOUR ( LAW DIVISION )
Karachi the 3rd June, 1949.

 

No. F.227/48–Law.– In exercise of the powers conferred by Explanation 2 to section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure 1908 (V of 1908), the Central Government in supersession of this Ministry’s Notification No.F.227/48-Law, dated the 6th May, 1949, is pleased to declare Fiji to be a reciprocating territory and the Supreme Court of Fiji to be a Superior Court of the territory for the purposes of the said section.

 

MINISTRY OF LAW
Karachi the 22nd April, 1954

 

No. F.12/52-Sol.– In exercise of the powers conferred by Explanation 2 to section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure 1908 (V of 1908), the Central Government is pleased to declare the Colony of Singapore to be a reciprocating territory and the Supreme Court of Singapore to be a Superior Court of the territory for the purposes of the said section.

 

MINISTRY OF LAW
Karachi, the 11th April, 1957

 

No. F.12/55-Sol.– In exercise of the powers conferred by section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure 1908 (V of 1908), the Central Government is pleased to declare the Australian Capital Territory to be a reciprocating territory and the Supreme Court of Australian Capital Territory to be a Superior Court of the territory for the purposes of the said section.

 

THE GAZETTE OF PAKISTAN, APRIL 19, 1957
Karachi, the 11th April, 1957

 

No. F.12/55-Sol.– The following Proclamation is published for general information:

 

Extract from “Commonwealth of Australia Gazette”, No. 77, dated the 24th December, 1956.

 

PROCLAMATION

 

Commonwealth of Australia to        By His Excellency the Governor

wit. W.J./SLIM, Governor              General in and over the

General.                                               Commonwealth of Australia.

 

Whereas it is provided by sub-section (2) of section 5 of the Foreign Judgment (Reciprocal Enforcement) Ordinance, 1954, of the Australian Capital Territory, that, if the Governor-General is satisfied that in the event of the benefits conferred by Part II of that Ordinance being extended to judgments given in the superior Courts of any country, substantial reciprocity of treatment will be assured as respects the enforcement within that country of judgments given in the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory, he may by Proclamation declare:-

(a)           that Part II of that Ordinance extends in relation to that country; and

 

(b)          that such Courts as are specified in the proclamation shall, for the purpose of Part II of the Ordinance, be deemed to be Superior Courts of that country:

 

AND WHEREAS I, Sir William Joseph Slim, the Governor-General in and over the Commonwealth of Australia, acting with the advice of the Federal Executive Council, am satisfied that, in the event of the benefits conferred by Part II of the Foreign Judgment (Reciprocal Enforcement) Ordinance, 1954, being extended to judgments given in the superior Courts of a country which is specified in column 1 of the Schedule to this Proclamation, substantial reciprocity of treatment will be assured as respects the enforcement within that country of judgments given in the Supreme Court of the Australian Capital Territory:

 

NOW, THEREFORE, I, the Governor-General aforesaid, acting with the advice of the Federal Executive Council, hereby declare:-

(a) that Part II of the Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Ordinance, 1954, of the Australian Capital Territory extends in relation to a country specified in column 1 of the Schedule to this Proclamation; and

(b) that the Court or Courts specified in column 2 of that Schedule opposite to a country shall, for the purposes of Part II of that Ordinance be deemed to be superior Court or superior Courts, as the case may be, of that country.

 

THE SCHEDULE

 

Column I Column 2
Ceylon The Supreme Court of Ceylon.
The District Courts of Ceylon.
Fiji The Supreme Court of Fiji.
Hong Kong The Supreme Court of Hong Kong.
New Zealand The Supreme Court of New Zealand.
Federation of Malaya The High Court of the Federation of Malaya.
Pakistan The Supreme Court of Pakistan.
The High Court for the Province of East Pakistan.
The High Court for the Province of West Pakistan.
The District Courts of Pakistan.
All other Courts of Pakistan whose civil jurisdiction is subject to no pecuniary limit.
Singapore The High Court of the Colony of Singapore.
The Cook Islands (including Niue) The Supreme Court of New Zealand.
The Trust Territory of Western Samoa The Supreme Court of New Zealand.

 

Given under my hand and the Great seal of the (L.S.) Commonwealth this twenty-first day of December in the Year of our Lord One thousand nine hundred and fifty-six, and in the fifth year of Her Majesty’s reign.

 

By His Excellency’s Command.

NELL

O’SULLIVAN,
Attorney-General

God Save the Queen;

 

By Authority: A.J. Arthor, Commonwealth Government Printer, Canberra.

 

MINISTRY OF LAW

Karachi, the 3rd November 1958

 

No.F.11(2)/56-Sol.– In exercise of the powers conferred by explanation 2 to section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure 1908 (V of 1908), the Central Government is pleased to declare the New Zealand, including the cook Islands (including Nitte) and the Trust Territory of Western Samoa to be a reciprocating territory,and the Supreme Court of the New Zealand to be a Superior Court of that territory for the purposes of the said section.

 

This notification shall be deemed to have taken effect as on and from the twenty seventh day of August, nineteen hundred and fifty eight.

 

 

MINISTRY OF LAW

Karachi, the 3rd November 1958

 

No. F.11(2)/56-Sol.-The Government of New Zealand with the concurrence of the Government of Pakistan has made the following order providing for the executing of the decrees of Superior Courts in Pakistan on the basis of reciprocity. The order is published for general information.

 

“THE RECIPROCAL ENFORCEMENT OF JUDGMENTS (PAKISTAN)
ORDER, 1958

 

COBHAM, Governor-General

ORDER IN COUNCIL

 

At the Government House at Wellington this 27th day of August 1958.

 

PRESENT

His Excellency the Governor-General in Council. PURSUANT to the Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1934, His Excellency the Governor-General acting by and with the advice and consent of the Executive Council, and being satisfied that substantial reciprocity of treatment will be assured as respects the enforcement within Pakistan of judgments given in the Superior Courts of New Zealand, hereby make the following order.

 

ORDER

 

  1. This order may be cited as the Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments (Pakistan) Order, 1958.

 

  1. Part 1 of the Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1934, shall extend to Pakistan.

 

  1. The Supreme Court of Pakistan, the High Court for the province of West Pakistan, the High Court for the province of East Pakistan, and all Pakistan District and other Courts where civil jurisdiction is subject to no pecuniary limit, shall be deemed to be Superior Courts of Pakistan for the purposes of Part I of the Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments Act, 1934.

 

MINISTRY OF LAW

Karachi, the 22nd April, 1959

 

No.S.R.O.403.-In exercise of the powers conferred by Explanation 2 to section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908), the Central Government is pleased to declare the Northern Territory of Australia to be a reciprocating territory, and the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory of Australia to be a Superior Court of the territory for the purposes of the said section.

 

No.F.12/56-Sol. The following notice is published for general information.

(Extract from Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No.27 dated 7th May, 1959).

 

NORTHERN TERRITORY OF Australia FOREIGN JUDGMENTS (RECIPROCAL ENFORCEMENT) ORDINANCE, 1955.

 

Whereas it is provided by sub-section 1 of section 5 the Foreign Judgment (Reciprocal Enforcement) Ordinance 1955 of the Northern Territory of Australia, that if the Attorney-General is satisfied that, in the event of the benefits conferred by Part II of that Ordinance being applied to judgments given in the Superior Courts of a country outside Australia substantial reciprocity of treatment will be assured as respects the enforcement within that country of judgments given in the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, he may by notice declare:

 

(a)           that Part II of that Ordinance applies in relation to that country, and

 

(b)          that such Courts of that country as are specified in the notice shall, for the purposes of part II of that Ordinance, be deemed to be Superior Courts of that country.

 

AND WHEREAS, I, Sir Garfield Edward John Barwick, the Attorney-General of the Commonwealth of Australia am satisfied that in the event of the benefits conferred by Part II of that Ordinance being applied to judgments given in the Superior Courts of Pakistan, substantial reciprocity of treatment will be assured as respects the enforcement within that country of judgments given in the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, I, the Attorney-General aforesaid hereby declare-

(a)           that Part II of the Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Ordinance, 1955, of the Northern Territory applies in relation to Pakistan and

 

(b) that the following Courts, shall, for the purposes of part II of that Ordinance, be deemed to be Superior Courts of that country:

The Supreme Court of Pakistan;

 

The High Courts  of Pakistan;

 

The High Courts

 

All District Courts;

 

All other Courts in Pakistan when exercising a civil jurisdiction which is subject to no pecuniary limit provided that a judgment of any such other Court which is sought to be enforced is endorsed with the statement under the seal of the Court that the Court’s jurisdiction in the matter in which the judgment was given was subject to no pecuniary limit.

 

Dated this twentieth day of April, 1959.

G.E. BARWICK GENERAL

Attorney General

 

 

 

 

 

 

MINISTRY OF LAW AND PARLIAMENTARY AFFAIRS

( Law Division )

Islamabad, the 21st September, 1970

 

No. S.R.O. 1067(K)/10.– In exercise of the powers conferred by section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908), the Central Government is pleased to declare the Australian State of Victoria to be a reciprocating territory, and the Supreme Court of Australian State of Victoria to be a Superior Court of the territory for the purposes of the said section.

 

No.S.R.O. 1068(K)/70.

The following proclamation is published for general information.

 

(Extract from the Victoria Government Gazette No.10, dated 4th February, 1970.)

 

DECLARATION OF RECIPROCATING COUNTRY FOR THE PURPOSES OF PART II OF THE FOREIGN JUDGMENTS ACT, 1962, No. 6916.

 

PROCLAMATION

 

By His Excellency the Governor of the State of Victoria and its Dependencies in the Commonwealth of Australia & C, & C &C.

 

I, the Governor of the State of Victoria acting by and with the advice of the Executive Council thereof and being satisfied that the law of Pakistan makes provision for the enforcement in that country of judgments given in the Superior Courts of Victoria.

 

DO BY THIS MY PROCLAMATION DIRECT-

 

(a)           that part II of the Foreign Judgments Act, 1962, shall extend to Pakistan and

(b)           that the Courts of Pakistan named hereunder be deemed Superior Courts for the purposes of the said Part II of the Foreign Judgments Act, 1962:-

(i)            The Supreme Court of Pakistan,

(ii)           the High Courts for the Province of West Pakistan and East Pakistan,

(iii)         all District Courts, and

(iv)          all other Courts whose civil jurisdiction is subject to no pecuniary limit, provided that the judgment sought to be enforced is sealed with a seal showing that the jurisdiction of the Court is subject to no pecuniary limit.

GIVEN under my Hand and the Seal of the State of Victoria aforesaid, at Melbourne, this twenty-eight day of January, in the year of our Lord One thousand nine hundred and seventy and in the eighteenth year of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

 

MINISTRY OF LAW AND PARLIAMENTARY AFFAIRS

( Law Division )

Islamabad the 2nd April 1973

 

No. S.R.O.482(1)/73.– In exercise of the powers conferred by section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908), the Federal Government is pleased to declare the State of Queensland and Western Australia to be the reciprocating territory, and the Superior Courts of those States to be Superior Courts of the territory for the purposes of the said section.

 

S.R.O. 483(1)/73. The following Orders in Council are hereby published for general information.

 

(1)           Order in Council dated the 24th September, 1970, extending of the Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments Act of 1959 of Queensland to Pakistan etc.

 

WHEREAS by “The Reciprocal Enforcement of Judgments Act of 1979, it is amongst other things enacted that if the Governor in Council is satisfied that in the event of the benefits conferred by Part II of the said Act being extended to judgments given in the Superior Courts of any Commonwealth country not including the United Kingdom and Commonwealth of Australia or given in the Superior Courts of any foreign country substantial reciprocity of treatment will be assured as respects the enforcement within that Commonwealth country or in that foreign country, as the case may be of judgments given in the Superior Courts of Queensland, he may by Order in Council direct:

(a)           that the said Part II of the said Act shall extend to that Commonwealth country or to that foreign country, and

(b)          that such Courts as are specified in the Order in Council shall be for the purposes of the said Part II of the said Act be deemed Superior Courts of that Commonwealth country or of that foreign country.

 

AND WHEREAS the Governor in Council is satisfied that in the event of the benefits conferred by the said part II of the said Act, being extended to judgments given in the Superior Courts of the countries set forth in the Schedule hereto substantial reciprocity of treatment will be assured as respects the enforcement within such countries of judgments given in the Superior Courts of Queensland:

 

NOW, THEREFORE, his Excellency the Governor, acting by and with the advice of the Executive Council and in pursuance of the powers and authorities vested in him by the said Act doth hereby direct that Part II of the said Act shall extend to the countries set forth in the said Schedule and that the Court or Courts respectively set forth in such Schedule opposite the name of each country shall for the purposes of Part II of the said Act be deemed the Superior Court or Courts of such country.

 

And the Honourable the Minister for Justice and Attorney-General is to give the necessary directions herein accordingly:

 

 

SCHEDULE

 

 

Column 1                                                                            Column 2

 

 

Ceylon: The Supreme Court of Ceylon.
The District Court of Ceylon

 

India: The Supreme Court of India.
All High Courts and judicial Commissioner Courts in India.

All other Courts in India when exercising a civil jurisdiction which is subject to no pecuniary limit.

 

Pakistan: The Supreme Court of Pakistan.
The High Courts for the Province of West Pakistan and East Pakistan.
All District Courts.
All other Courts whose civil jurisdiction is subject to no pecuniary limit.

 

British Columbia: The Court of Appeal for British Columbia.
The Supreme Court of British Columbia.

 

Bahama Islands: The Supreme Court of the Bahama Islands.

 

Singapore: The High Court of Singapore.

 

Fiji: The Supreme Court of Fiji.

 

Manitoba: Court of appeal for Manitoba.
Her Majesty’s Court of Queen’s Bench for Manitoba.
All Country Courts in Manitoba.

 

British Honduras: The Supreme Court of British Honduras.

 

Cayman Islands: The Grand Court of Cayman Islands.

 

 

 

(2)         Order in Council published in the Government of the State of Western Australia, Gazette dated the 24th July, 1970, extending part II of its Foreign Judgment (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act, 1963-65 to Pakistan, etc.

 

WHEREAS it is enacted, inter alia, by sub-section (2) of section six in Part II of the Foreign Judgment (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act, 1963-65, that where the Governor is satisfied that, if the benefits conferred by that Part are extended to judgments given in the Superior Courts of any Commonwealth country, or given in the Superior Courts of any foreign country, substantial reciprocity of treatment will be assured as respects the enforcement within that Commonwealth country or in that foreign country as the case may be of judgments given in the Supreme Court, he may by Order, direct-

 

(a)           that Part II shall extend to that Commonwealth country or to that foreign country; and

(b)           that such Courts as are specified in the order shall be deemed to be Superior Courts of that Commonwealth country or of that foreign country for the purposes of that Part:

 

NOW, THEREFORE, His Excellency the Governor, being so satisfied with respect to each country specified in column 1 of the Schedule to this Order and the Superior Court or Superior Courts, as the case may be specified in column 2 of that Schedule, by virtue and in exercise of the powers conferred on the Governor by the above recited sub-section and acting with the advice and consent of the Executive Council, doth hereby direct-

(a)           that part II of the Foreign Judgments (Reciprocal Enforcement) Act, 1963-65, shall extend to a country specified in column 1 of the Schedule to this Order; and

(b)          that the Court or Courts specified in column 2 of that Schedule opposite to a country shall for the purposes of that Part be deemed a Superior Court or Superior Courts, as the case may be of that country.

 

THE SCHEDULE

 

 

 

Column 1                                                            Column 2

 

 

 

Bahama Islands The Supreme Court of Bahama Islands.
British Honduras The Supreme Court of British Honduras.

 

Cayman Islands Grand Court of the Cayman Islands.
Ceylon The Supreme Court of Ceylon.
The District Courts of Ceylon.

 

Federation of Malaysia The Federal Court of Malaysia.
The High Court of Malaya.
The High Court of Borneo.

 

Fiji The Supreme Court of Fiji.

 

India The Supreme Court of India; all High Courts and Judicial Commissioner’s Courts in India; all District Courts in India; all other Courts in India when exercising a civil jurisdiction which is subject to no pecuniary limit, if a judgment of any such Court which is sought to be enforced is endorsed with a statement under the seal of the Court that the Court’s jurisdiction in the matter in which the judgment was given was subject to no pecuniary limit.

 

Italy The Superior Courts of Italy.
Manitoba The Court of Appeal for Manitoba; Her Majesty’s Court of Queen’s Bench for Manitoba; all County Courts in Manitoba
Pakistan The Supreme Court of Pakistan; The High Court for the Province East Pakistan; the High Court for the Province of West Pakistan; all District Courts in Pakistan; all other Courts in Pakistan when exercising a civil jurisdiction which is subject to no pecuniary limit, if a judgment of any such other Court which is sought to be enforced is endorsed with a statement under the seal of the Court that the Courts jurisdiction in the matter in which the judgment was given was subject to no pecuniary limit.

 

Singapore The High Court of Singapore.

 

 

File No. F1(1)/72-Sol.II.

S.A.M. Wahidi, CSS
Section Officer.

 

 

MINISTRY OF JUSTICE AND PARLIAMENTARY AFFAIRS

( Justice Division )

Islamabad, the 6th June, 1983

S.R.O. 567(1)/83.– In exercise of the powers conferred by Explanation 2 to section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908) the Federal Government is pleased to declare the State of Kuwait to be a reciprocating territory, and the following Courts of the State of Kuwait to be the Superior Courts of the territory for the purposes of the said section, namely –

  1. Constitutional Court.
  2. Court of Causation
  3. High Court of Appeal.

 

 

MINISTRY OF LAW AND PARLIAMENTARY AFFAIRS

( Justice Division )

Islamabad the 20th May, 1985

 

No. S.R.O.477(1)/85.– In exercise of the powers conferred by Explanation 2 below section 44-A of the Code of Civil Procedure, 1908 (V of 1908) the Federal Government is pleased to declare the Republic of Turkey to be a reciprocating territory and the Ashye Mukul Maikemereri (First Instance Courts) of the Republic of Turkey to be the Superior Courts of the territory for the purposes of the said section.

Saif-ul-Islam

Section Officer

 

S.R.O. 478(1)/85.– The following Convention on Mutual Assistance in Civil and Commercial Matters between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of Turkey, which came into force on the 5th day of June, 1983, is hereby published for general information.

 

(No.F.9(4)/78-Sol.II)

 

CONVENTION ON MUTUAL ASSISTANCE IN CIVIL AND
COMMERCIAL MATTERS BETWEEN THE ISLAMIC
REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN AND THE
REPUBLIC OF TURKEY

 

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the Republic of Turkey.

 

Desiring to regulate the legal protection of Pakistani nationals in Turkey and to Turkish nationals in Pakistan and the mutual assistance of Judicial authorities of the two States in civil and commercial matters.

 

Have decided to conclude a Convention and have agreed as follows:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER I

DEFINITIONS AND FIELD OF APPLICATION

Article 1

 

  1. Except for the contrary cases expressly indicated, this Convention shall apply only to civil and commercial matters, including indisputable affairs.
  2. For the purposes of this convention:

(a)           the expression “consul” means any person who, having been appointed by the sending State to the receiving State to exercise consular functions, has been granted an exequatur or any other authorization by the receiving State;

(b)          the expression “diplomatic agent” means the chief of mission of the sending State, duly admitted by the receiving State, or any member of the diplomatic staff of this mission;

(c)           the expression “person” means physical and juridical persons;

(d)          the expression “designated authority” means the authority designated by each contracting party to receive request under the provisions of this Convention.

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER II

SERVICE OF JUDICIAL AND EXTRA – JUDICIAL DOCUMENTS

Article 2

  1. When judicial and extra-judicial documents drawn up in the territory of a Contracting party are to be served on persons resident in the territory of the other Party, they shall be served on the addressee whatever his nationality, through one of the forms provided for in Article 3.
  2. The expression “requesting Party” which occurs in Chapter II of this Convention, means the country where the documents to be served are drawn up and the expression “requested Party” means the country where the documents are to be served.

 

Article 3

 

  1. The request for service shall be addressed by a diplomatic agent or consul, acting on behalf of the requesting Party to the designated authority of the requested Party, so that the document concerned may be served by the competent authority.

 

  1. The request for service, specifying the names and capacities of the parties, the name, address and capacity of the addressee and the nature of the document to be served, must be in the language of the requested Party and be accompanied by two copies of the document concerned.

 

  1. The document to be served shall be either in the language of the requested Party or accompanied by two copies of translation made into this language. The translation must be certified as accurate by the diplomatic agent or consul of the requesting Party.

 

  1. Except when the service is effected in a special form, which is indicated in the request in so far as it is compatible with the law of the executing country, the competent authority shall effect the service in the form provided for in the law of that country as regards the service of similar documents.

 

  1. A request for service which conforms to the preceding provisions of this Article may be refused only:

(a)           if the authenticity of the request for service is not established, or

(b)           if the Contracting Party which will effect the service in its territory, considers that such service is likely to prejudice the sovereignty or security of the State or is contrary to its public policy.

 

  1. In all cases where a request for service is not executed, the requested authority shall, as soon as possible, inform the diplomatic agent or consul of the requesting Party the reason why the request has been refused.

 

  1. The designated authority to which the request is made for the execution of service shall send to the diplomatic agent or consul of the requesting Party an attestation stating that the service has been effected. In case of failure, the requested Party shall inform the diplomatic agent or consul of the requesting Party the reasons which prevented the execution of the service. An attestation specifying the fact in regard to failure of such service will be attached thereto.

 

Article 4

 

  1. In the case where the documents are served in accordance with the provisions of Article 3, the Contracting Party, whose diplomatic agent or consul has transmitted the request for service, shall refund to the other Contracting Party the fees which must be, under the law of the country where the service is effected, paid to the officials charged with the execution of the service as well as the costs incurred by reason thereof. The fees and costs may not exceed the amount usually paid in the law Courts of the requested State.

 

  1. The competent authority which has effected the service shall request the diplomatic agent or consul of the requesting Party to reimburse the fees and costs in question while sending the attestation provided for in paragraph 7 of Article 3.

 

  1. In connection with the service of documents, a Contracting Party shall not pay any fees, under whatever denomination, to the other Party other than those mentioned above.

 

 

 

CHAPTER III

TAKING OF EVIDENCE

Article 5

  1. When a judicial authority of a Contracting Party deems it necessary to take evidence in the territory of the other Contracting Party, the evidence may be taken in the form provided for in Article 6, whatever the nationality of parties and witnesses may be.

 

  1. For the purposes of Chapter III of this Convention:

(a)           The expression “taking of evidence” comprises taking of testimonies, on oath or on solemn affirmation, of plaintiff, respondent, witness, expert, defender or of any other person; administering oath to the plaintiff, respondent, witness, defender, expert or to any other person pursuant to any provision of the procedure; producing, identifying or examining of any documents, samples or any other object;

 

(b)           the expression “witness” means any person from whom it is deemed necessary to take any evidence;

 

(c)           the expression “requesting Party” means the country where the law Court requires to take evidence, and the expression “requested Party” means the country where the evidence is to be taken.

 

Article 6

 

  1. The judicial authority of the requesting Party may, in conformity with the law of its country, request for taking of evidence by means of a Letter Rogatory addressed to the designated authority of the requested Party to be transmitted to the competent judicial authority.

 

  1. Letter Rogatory shall be either in the language of the requested Party or accompanied by two copies of a translation made into this language. The translation shall be certified as accurate by the competent authority of the requesting Party. The Letter Rogatory shall contain the nature of the action motivating the request for taking of evidence, all the necessary information relating to the subject, the names of the parties, the names, capacities and addresses of the witnesses. In addition to this:

(a)           either a list of questions to be put to witnesses or, if required, information on the qualities of the documents, samples or other objects, production, identification or examination of which is required shall be provided together with their translation duly certified as accurate; or

(b)           the competent authority shall be requested to permit the parties or their representatives to ask the questions they wish to put.

 

  1. Except when the Letter Rogatory is executed in a special from, should an express request to this effect have been made in the Letter Rogatory, in so far as it is compatible with the law of the requested Party, the competent authority of the requested Party shall execute the Letter Rogatory observing the same form and employing the same means as it would when carrying out a Commission from the authorities of its own country.

 

  1. The diplomatic agent or consul of the requesting Party shall, if it is so required, be informed of the date and place where the Letter Rogatory is to be executed, in order that the Party or parties may be notified that they may be present themselves or, if they so wish, be represented by an Advocate, pursue of action or any other person having the power of representation in the law Courts of the requested Party.
  2. A request for executing a Letter Rogatory which conforms to the preceding provisions of this Article may be refused only:

(a)           if the authenticity of the Letter Rogatory is not established; or

(b)           if, in the territory of the requested Party, execution of the Letter Rogatory does not fall within the competence of its judicial power;

(c)           if the Contracting Party, in whose territory execution should be effected, deems it likely to prejudice the sovereignty or security of the State or contrary to its public policy.

 

  1. In all cases where a Letter Rogatory is not executed by the competent authority, the designated authority, shall, as soon as possible, inform the diplomatic agent or consul of the requesting Party the reasons why it has not been executed.

 

  1. When a Letter Rogatory is executed, the designated authority shall send to the diplomatic agent or consul of the requesting Party the required documents establishing that the Letter Rogatory has been executed.

 

Article 7

 

  1. In the case where the evidence is taken in accordance with Article 6, the Contracting Party whose judicial authority has sent the Letter Rogatory shall refund to the other Contracting Party the fees paid, in execution of the request, by the competent authority to witnesses, experts and interpreters and the costs incurred by reason of the execution and the expenses incurred by the summons of the witnesses because they have not appeared of their own free will as well as the fees paid to and expenses incurred by the competent authority to act on its behalf, if the law of the executing country so permits, and the charges and costs incurred by reason of the observance of a special form if it is requested. These expenses shall be such as those which are usually admissible in similar cases before the law Courts of the requested Party.
  2. The competent authority which has executed the Letter Rogatory shall require the diplomatic agent or consul of the requesting Party to reimburse the expenses in question while sending the documents provided for in paragraph 7 of Article 6, stating that the Letter Rogatory has been executed.

 

  1. In connection with the taking of evidence, a Contracting Party shall not pay any fees, under whatever denomination, to the other Party other than those mentioned above.

 

 

CHAPTER IV

PROVISIONS RELATING TO EQUALITY OF
TREATMENT IN JUDICIAL MATTERS

Article 8

 

The nationals of a Contracting Party shall, in the territory of the other Party, be entitled to legal protection for their persons and property and to bring actions or defend themselves under the same conditions, including charges and costs and shall enjoy the same rights as the nationals of the other Contracting Party.

 

Article 9

 

The nationals of a Contracting Party resident in the territory of the other Party shall not be constrained to effect any payment as security for Court costs which the nationals of the other Party are not obliged to deposit or pay.

 

Article 10

The nationals of a Contracting Party shall, in the territory of the other Party, enjoy free legal aid on the same basis as the nationals of the latter.

 

Article 11

 

Any difficulties which may arise in connection with the application of this Convention shall be settled through diplomatic channels.

 

Article 12

 

The present Convention shall be ratified and the instruments of ratification thereof shall be exchanged at Ankara.

The present Convention shall come into force one month after the exchange of the instruments of ratification.

 

Article 13

 

The Convention shall remain in force for an indefinite duration.

Any contracting Party may denounce the Convention at any time by giving notice to the other Party. Denunciation shall take effect six months after the date when the other Contracting Party received such notification

IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned plenipotentiaries being duly authorized by their Governments, have signed the present Convention and have affixed hereunto their seals.

DONE in duplicate in English language, at Ankara on this twenty-third day of June, in the year one thousand nine hundred and eighty-one.

For the Government of the Republic of For the Government the Islamic Republic

 

Turkey.                                                                                                 of Pakistan.

 

CEDVET METES,                                                              S. SHARIFUDDIN PIRZADA,

 

Minister of justice.                                            Minister of Law and Parliamentary

Affairs and Attorney General.

Saif-ul-Islam
Section Officer

These notifications have been produced in the Appendix to this Chapter.

 

  1. Reciprocity has also been established between Pakistan and other countries for the enforcement of maintenance orders as per following details.

 

LIST OF COUNTRIES WITH WHICH RECIPROCAL
ARRANGEMENTS EXIST

 

SERVICE OF SUMMONS

 

(Section 29, C.P.C.)

 

  1. PRE-INDEPENDENCE AGREEMENTS.

 

  1. Ceylon.
  2. Egypt.
  3. European Countries:

(a) Belgium, (b) France, (c) Portugal, (d) Russia, (e) Spain, (f) Sweden.

  1. French Colonial Countries.

(a) Pondichery.

(b) Maraikal.

(c) Mahe.

(d) Yanam.

(e) Saigon and French Indo-China.

  1. Iran.
  2. Iraq.
  3. Japan.
  4. Kenya.
  5. Mauritius.
  6. Nepal.
  7. Siam.
  8. Strait Settlements and Union of South Africa.
  9. State of Johore.

 

  1. NEW AGREEMENTS FILE NO.
  2. India and Indian States F.218/48-Law, dated 1.8.1952
  3. Federation of Malaya F.31/49-Leg, dated 20.8.1952
  4. Union of Burma F.53-VI/50-Sol, dated 13.10.1953
  5. Federal Republic of F.15(23)/52-Sol, dated 2.5.1955

Germany

  1. Switzerland. S.R.O 1714(k) dated 29.11.1960
  2. Denmark F.6(4)/75-Sol.II
  3. Turkey F.9(4)/78-Sol.II
  4. Greece F.9(2)/78-Sol.II

 

 

 

ENFORCEMENT OF MAINTENANCE ORDERS

 

  1. PRE-INDEPENDENCE AGREEMENTS FILE NO.
  2. Union of South Africa. 2(1)/66-Sol-II.
  3. Southern Rhodesia.
  4. Northern Rhodesia.
  5. Nayasaland.
  6. Kenya.
  7. Victoria.
  8. The Commonwealth of Australia.
  9. Federated Malaya States.
  10. Western Australia.
  11. Zanzibar.
  12. England and Ireland F.120 dated 6.3.1922

(F.11(4)/56-Sol)

  1. Ceylon.
  2. Colony of Scyehellen.
  3. New South Wales.
  4. Strait Settlements.
  5. Colony of Mauritius.
  6. Somaliland Protectorate.
  7. Uganda.
  8. Besutoland.
  9. British Burma.
  10. Sarawak.

 

 

 

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Thursday, November 1st, 2018    Gull Hassan Khan

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